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AUGUST 1992 

ISSUE #3«J 

USA $2.95 

CAN $3.95 

A H'G/ Publication 
fnteniational Edition 



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The First High Performance HF Under WO. 



tCOM Unveils the 
New IC-728! 

The HF All-Band Transcmfer offers 
the high-performance features previously 
available only on higher priced models. 
And we m^M] features — nol just beils & 
whistles. The amazing \Cu2i^ sells for 
under SHOO, yet has more of what pu 
buy a radio for — to 
hear and be heani 
— than any 
other trans- 
ceiver in 
its class. 



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More Clarity! 

All other radios in this price class use 
double conversion circuitr>i ICOM uses 
more advanced Triple Conversion 
technolog>f because it improves incoming 
signal quality and suppresses interference 

better And a Noise 

Blanker rduces 
pulse-type noise 
mierference instantly! 



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More Selectivity! 

You \mT\\ find PassBond 
Tuning m some radios at twice 
the price! PBT is the most effective 
interference rejection system ever 
developed. It lets tou narrow the 

IF passband 
width to cut out 
nearby sisals 
and zero in on 
just tte one you 
\^^nt to hear. 



in IICAU I M'tTi 



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More 
Flexibility! 

Highperformance 
AT'160 Antenna 

Tuner(opL.)(ktaches 
formobileoperaiion. 



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%and Stacking Register aut 

, ri;aucillv snaps yoaback to the last fr 
quent^f and mode you w^re usinfe"^^ Ji 
ix:riect f^iiOfttesting, ratrttibanoers 
Direct Digital S^tfwsis, ^vt^you fast T.'ft swifr 
injj ffjr digital modes^ DDS a Isf^ltii proves your carrier- ii> 
noise ratio by blocking inlrference, and it givatviu the 
fa^f ss^itching^rimes you need for paeket radicL 



icom m 

Speech Com- 

pressof increases 

■'";:■ ;ra'iiiijttei 
t^uipiiHigi^l sireugifL Thisfii^ves^ 
you f be p^)\vtT b T pmich I ; u^uygli 
when the bands are crowded ormn- 
ditions are less than perfeil. 



More Audio! Lm-noise frontend technolog>' means high sensitivity* A sharp IF 
and clear audio amplifier rombine for excellent sound reproduction. 

More M^mIg! TheIC-728i5morethanaradio— itsasysfew. For example, 
the optional ATH) ANTENNA TUNER can be ''buik-on" (it s not buihin), for optimal base 
station operation. Remove it > and you have a supercompact, light weight unit for mobile use, 
field days, etc. The bright LCD display is easy to see in vehicles (fluorescents arenYl and its 
superior noise blanker makes autoettt irical noise a problem of the past! 

And Even More! ah -band, all-mode,"^ general ro\^erage receiver, 26 memory 
channels, 3 types of scanning, plug-in (solder less) CW filters... plus tne same superior 
quality and refiability you ve come to expect \nth ^m ICOM transceiver. 

I WMft optional KA^M 




Wwn vite y^u to t^oinparelhe IC-72fi witH any 
other^. See 
hjK mytcb y% 
wnu Id p4^or 
anotiierfnins^ 
ceiver with all 
of these perfor 
mance feature^ 





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AT-lfiO Antenna Tufter is fmced septrvlely. 




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i^^;^:i^^.^^Mt;eTma: diredhj^eds'^v^o ■lijif-;si/e; :5/8| ,^^_, 
!j;;wijf*r:-: ::wave r4^hL\ioiii^wK! r}U!ke'sJ.h>fh ei&hefii^^\.''"' ■."' 
'■■ ''drof'ii^ly jvdliii'te:. :Yougei inrifiaiih!irrCi^-\pim-\}'^'[^^^^ 
■■■■■■'^'P^yy<mW"^. ackikipml galru \or FM; iirid:Rit:fel;;; 
\ :-:bcan[Se-:yoiir :inast.'dotiblcs: iis :a :R:tlLxitrr; Tiicre-Sij^ 
; ; :pienry ofiLniemmgaiivto-Avofk fii^iiionr^;olif:lhc^sidcs;p 
■■ ^ \inl bac k vtiur ' si iinal \^ just mow Izci ■ . in the- directkiri: ; ; 
:.: .the. Ml' J -[764 ti^^^-- " " '^ r^y^. 6 ■ :f :':':] n . 

'■\ The ■result?. You get \wn\: jangcto reiicfi:distautr.^ 
\ :::|^-b6i!i:tiers:andiiHich beticrllocaicovon^gie^^m i[jrectxhaTiTicIs:and;fti^S;J?i^^ 
;::::"You.gct:ancxtr(^ine].y-wide WlsAHti'J. SWR 'band wid^b; ;./ : ej<;ceiieM-: 
irfcrrilc choke, baliun'lbedtirt^ decoupni^to cii^ninaic; wasted^powerduie , 
; ■ k>:nijld -pattcni disioruon... •. ■.- ^['umt c}K^kefor:bleejLlingoru.inwa:nted-: 
■;;::static:::^^^ Hirbiig' tightvvbi*^hra;lQmianni constructioh protectii:^;i:by MJjii^'S:- 
i : : Per n?a n c njt : ^ M o I t^d u far Bo hd i hg' ^^^^ 
r:^;^;:|t's;i>iilv^^assenLhled — '^impl)^ iittacb.:^^^ 

^.^Mount>i^ vemcaUM lorFM a^^d Pjieket.or\horizoniaity:-f\)r SSH;. :Kasyf:^ 
; ■;:u;)fm:sia[h^itiV^sit]glcO:bolt (supi;^licdYon:any .1 lo.:l; i/2:.lneh -mast or: 
; ^I^Eowei: leg,. Weighs ■] I i'l poundSv two 47 i:iich>adiatin-s.:.2:ViricH.boont^' 
• '■■'■ Mii^te^n (.J.S:.A.: One vear IJncondiiionji .OLiaraatce, 

M -^ :.\;6ircM^a6ubie 1he:gauroif:^no Mf J;-;l 764 5 /i^- Wtdve^SuiHi^r- Citilt;^^'^'-' 
; :^2-Mcter AjH^ana by';-mounnrig t wo MEJ-;I764s .QElc.ilbave■lhc■^*i:lic^■ 
: ;:oh the *;iiine mar^t 'An&diraillv fce.dini>\SQ\.\\: Order MH"fi|?66::S8Q:.95:-- 
; : includes -i MJ^J-;f7b4'SCt[K:r thi;!!!'^^'- 2-Meter .^Aii!]C:nnas ;and a ninUM ' 
■ ■ Feed ^PewcrS^plitier/l-^ible :Hilr^cs^i.. : ''■:'■^'-^-ff^^■\■\■. ■ ■ • • 
^^L.;:; If yoti li I read V have: Lw^ MFJ- i 764s. xirdcr-M FT- 1:765, ^^mvmre&:- 
?^=^7^^^:Powcr- S;pliUer/Cablc■;Hi^;^ii;::^:> isi ^'^i'y^^'-^^>:M^k^y^^ 




Add this strong, flexible '* Shorty" 
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Soiir ■ MFI antemitt • ixsri^: with 

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lifciMFj: arftcnnMlat; oijp ojii(On).^j/r/?jkJtf^^^ 
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It's easy to store and sturdy enough to use as your 
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the whole 2 Meter band. A ferrite choke balun gives you excellent rmMr^ntw^ t\»<^ ^/h^ m nrriflni \tm\ mf.j ♦f™ r^itr^ioo 
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Weighs just 2 pounds. Boom is 30 '/^ inches. Made in USA. 

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r* to 1 1/2*' inch mast with single U-bolt 
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Also available for 22« MHz, Mf J-17Sa, $19.95. 

Dual Band Mobile 

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MFJ-1724B 

$1495 

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The stainless steel mdiator will 
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It's only 19 inches tall so you can 
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^rhe MFJ- 1724B handles 300 watts 
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HT Range Extenders 

Telescoping antennas for handhelds 

A. The Long Ranger ^ 

2 Meter Halrwave. 
MFJ-1714, S 16.95. 
For really long range 
this MFJ endfed 
half wave is hard to 
beat. It outperforms a 
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handheld because the A- B. C. 
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nector than a 5/8 wave antenna. 
When collapsed, it performs 
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7 1/4^' collapsed. 19'^ extended. 

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When you're using your rubber 
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Has pocket clip. 5 1/4 ' collapsed. 



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Lehers 



llUmber 1 on your Feedback card 



Brent Newinan, Duncan OK I was a 
ham wanna -be. The only problem was 
that I could not find iBformalion about 
amateur radto^ After a last and un$uc^ 
cessful search at the local library, I was 
convjr>ced that I would never become a 
ham. Extremely discouraged, I grabbed 
a magazine off of the library's magazine 
rack and plopped down on the ugly 
green reading couch. After reading a 
few articles I tossed it aside and 
scanned the assortment of magazines 
for one thai might be of rnterest to me. 
T!»en, on the last shelf near \he fkx)f, my 
eyes found a Godsend: 7$ Amawur Ra- 
(*© Today. 

Before anyone could bat an eye, J 
had snatched the magazine from its 
resting place and was soaking m every 
last bft of knomtedge from aN Bd informa^ 
bve. interesting and inspirif>g pages. As I 
gleaned tnsi^t from your magazine, the 
babWing tjaby throwing booKs. tl>e gig- 
gimg girls running down !he aisJes. and 
the beautilyl babe sitting across from nr^e 
all faded out of my mind, making way for 
the most important input before my 
eyes. 

A librarian later fold me that someone 
donates an issue of this magazine to !he 
library every nx)ntti. Thanks!' to whoev- 
er donates 73 Magazine to that smaJI li* 
brary in Duncan, Oklahoma, And an es- 
pecially big thanks to Wayne Green and 
his team for Cf eating such an outstand- 
ing magazine. 

I am no longer a ham wanna-be; now 
I'm a ham soon -to-be. 



Bob Shafer K^IIPH, Vandergrlft PA I 
am, writing to set you straight (excuse 
the pun) on your so-calJed tacts. Believe 
wliat you may about horr^osexuality but 
it is not genetic nor is it incurable. Your 
problem stems from your tongue-in- 
cheek attitude toward God, our Creator 
This ietter is to let you In on some Good 
News. Jesus Christ is GOD, the Son of 
the Father, All things were made through 
Him, and without Him nothing was made 
I hat was made. He became a man, com* 
ing in flesh, born of a virgin. He died in 
our place, instead of us, under the pun* 
kshment of God for our sins. In His cteath 
He took the penalty thai we deserve. In 
so doing God was, in Christ, reconciling 
the world to Himself, imputing our tres- 
passes to us. Jesus became our ransom 
to purchase us from the domination and 
penalty of sin. After He died on the cross 
He was buned. On the third day He rose 
from the dead according to the scrip- 
tures. This means that He literally came 
bade to life in His physica) human bociy. 
In raising Him from the dead God de- 
clared Jesus to t)e Lord of all, and the 
Messiah ot tsnel (the future world ruler 
from Israel promised in ttie Hebrew 
scriptures). After His resurrection, the 
Lord Jesus Christ appeared to His apos- 
tles and disciples, and was seen by 
them for 40 days. He then ascended to 
heaven to sil at the right of God t*^e Fa- 
ther. 

You may receive eternal life, forgive- 
ness of all yoLrr sins, and resctie from 
everlasting puntshment simply by t>eiiev- 
ing thts message in your heart 

This is the Good News I would like to 
proclaim to you and homosexuals. 



From the Hamshack 



racists, etc. God will forgive you for this 
sfn and al} others because He paid for it 
at the Cross of Calvary. Tlie sin of ho- 
mosexuality and lifestyle is a choice, not 
an act of nature (God, if you tikeK be- 
cause man does not want lo take re- 
sponsibility For his own actions. If you 
doubt what I say, just read what God 
says about this matter in the book oi Ro- 
mans 1 : 18-32. God does rkot hate homo- 
sexuals; neither do I. He hates the sin 
they commit arid any sin we commit 
against Him. We are hopeless willKHJt 
tJie forgiveness and mercy tfiat we can 
ret^ive from tfke Lofd Jesus Christ. God 
ttie Father gave us His perfect sinless 
Son to die for us, who are all sinners. 
We aU deserve to bum in tteli, but He 
gave us His Son for a means of escape. 
A ciosfng comment: You seem to 
equate homosexuality with racism; tfiis 
is wrong. Yes, racism © sin the same as 
homosoKuatity. God only created one 
race and that is the human race for 
which He tied- But you seem lo wan! to 
put homosexuals in a minority status, of 
which ihey are NOT; this is wrong. It 
sounds as if you have been brain* 
washed by the lit>era! press and militant 
homosexual groups. Well, Wayne, I fig- 
ure this letter will cause you to seethe in 
hatred tor my Lord and Saviour even 
more, but the Scriptures say: "For the 
message of the cross is foolishness to 
those who are perishing, but to us who 
are being saved it is the power of God." 
(t Corinth. 1:18) I wiii pray that the Lord 
grant you mercy and open your now- 
closed eyes to the TRLTTH, {THE LORD 
JESUS CHRIST)!!] !!ll 

Seethe m hatred? No, not at at!, t en- 
joyed your letter. So you think that I)e- 
cause } have a different set of beifets 
that t ham been t:ira{nwashed by militant 
homosexual groups? Au contralre mon 
ami^my brainwashing ws5 for cleans- 
ing purposes, to wash sway the barriers 
of ignorance, religiotis and political dog- 
ma — to enable me to have an open 
enough mind to read more than one 
book— to read what thousands of intelli- 
gent people have written — and to try to 
make sense of all this information epis- 
temologtcally 

The liberal press is frustrated with me 
Since i appear to them to be a staunch 
consenrative. t\/fititant homosexuals are 
frustrated with me because they don't 
want to believe that their behavior is ge- 
neticaliy cantrolied. We alt like to think 
we have free wttfs, tn<ieed, manype<^ 
actually believe this. 

Of course if was only abot/f a hun- 
dred years ago that scientists called 
anyone crazy ivrto believed that meteors 
were real Piate tectonics is even newer. 
MS are reiatfvity, quantum and chaos the- 
ories. Yet each of these fiave changed 
our understanding of the worid^and 
each is understandable, if one makes 
Ihe effort. Uttte of value ts avaiiabte wrf/i- 
out effort, t hope yoo'tl agree. 

You didn*t say which of tf}e organized 
commerdaf religions you 3re s&tfing, but 
you cmtamiy are a tmiy inspired sales- 
man. One ttting puzzled me Bobsince 
the number seven is the mark of the 
devfl, was your use of seven exclama- 
tion points at the end of your letter 



meant to tell me not to txilieve anything 
you wrote? That was the message you 
sentf . . . Cheers, Wayne 



Don Smithana W9FFG, Sar^ Diego CA 
Being a "builder/expefimenter^ 1 feei 
highly about your magazine and the 
practicaf artlcies it contains. Aside from 
the Gonstnjction articles, the advertising 
is one of the most interesting and t)ene- 
ficial parts of 73 Magazine. Before con- 
sidefing any purchase, t always read the 
ads in your magazine^ 3 believe you 
have to be somewhat older to realize the 
importance of advertising such as ttiis. 

There is an old saying, Time is the 
besi teacher, but leaves no students!' 
This was again evidenced in your fine 
editorial (Worrywart at Dayton) in the 
March 1992 issue. Actually it is more 
ttian a time to WORRY, it is a time to 
PANICf Where are the skilled artisans of 
the eiectronic age. the deep resource of 
trained technicians who have more Itian 
computer buzzwords as a vocalMiiary? 
Your concern is welt founded and I hope 
your voice o# vision is not relegated to a 
iajnl whtning in the dark wilderness. Our 
situation of technical jobs and skttis has 
reached criticaJ mass. Our "amateur ra- 
dio fraternity^ can help to iocys on Ihe 
national problems. 

Having fusl returned from a business 
trip to the Tokyo area, I found all t^e 
more truth to your editorial. For those la- 
miliar, the *EtectroTiic Experimemers 
sediOfi" of Tokyo is centered around Ak- 
ihabara near the downtown area. In 
America, the whole area might be con- 
demned as being an eyesore or fiietrap. 
But, its liny booths and display areas 
abound with the latest electronic devices 
as well as a wide variety of modern elec- 
tronic parts and hardware. Not surplus 
military such as we used to find in cities 
like Dayton, New York, Chic ago. etc. I 
am sure these areas in America helped 
spawn many new-wave electronic cor- 
porations. With the parts displayed to- 
day In Japan one can build prototypes of 
a most modern type. And I am sure new 
industries are bulEt upon some of these 
experimental offerings, 

What am I getting at? That we have 
lost much of the infrastructure of paris 
availability to actually engineer, to pro- 
duce a quality product in the manner 
which helped found so vera t of our major 
industries It is the grass-roots effort of 
thousands of talented electronic afi- 
cionados that can build an industry— 
and the computer people tn America 
know what many of these industres are. 

Now Akihabara and Kanda areas of 
Tokyo were not always electronic cen- 
ters. After the war I was one of the few 
television engineers lo visit the area to 
buy parts, radio parts of a most primitive 
type. And tong before thai, it was an 
area of flat fieJds with red leaves on the 
trees, Aki ha bara (red leal flat fietds). 
What a major transformation! And it is 
one we must also accomplish W we are 
to effectively provide high-tech pbs for 
those who want them. No, we should not 
onfy WANT Ihem. we NEED them. It 
may be that we need editorials such as 
yours to wake tjp the sleeping giant of 
apathy which resides in too many of us. 



Jonalhon Grimes KB4UHK. KJngsport 
TN I am a Tech-Plus bcensee and have 
been licensed since I was 13. in 1386^ 
Wayr>e, I would like to thank you and the 
staff for making a progressive, welf-writ- 
ten magazine that is ready to go through 
aB the risks of publishing in order lo be 



ejcciting. (The same goes lor Radio 
Fun—\ subscribe.) I have been QRT tor 
about three years until I got to read your 
magazine for the first time. What a 
change from QST and CO Your whters 
are encouraging and educating the 
readers from learning Morse to using 
spread spectrum, while the other maga- 
zines are still using three or more pages 
for Straight Key Night Well fine, let 'em 
al I Eive in the 1 9th oeniwry and leave the 
new scene alone. By being a mob of 
crotchety old geezers the old crowd has 
not succeeded in maintaining a country 
club atmosphere on our frequencies. In- 
stead, Ihey have alienated themselves 
from the new induct of hams and their 
peers who had a ittte more vision and a 
great deal more courage. So let's just 
sentence ttie spafk gap crowd, the AR- 
fB_ aiKf CQ to 75m and the oo^asional 
polnttess contest and be done with it. so 
your magazines can slop using up so 
much of their free space complaining 
ttirough your editorials and letters like 
this. 



Tom Rice WB6BYH, Uvermore CA 
Wayi^. in your June 1992 editonal you 
mentioned how ttie in!amous Doyte Let- 
ters revealed tftat the ARAL president 
was paid by Halliqrafters lo gain space 
in QST. 

This tickJes me, but for another rea- 
son. I have always wanted to know how 
It was that the Republic Studios had a% 
tfiat neat Hatlicrafters stuff on display in 
theh serials. 

WeYe tjoth old enougti to remember 
tfie Saturday afternoon movies; for me, 
ttie seriate were the big draw and proba- 
bly responsible for making me the tech- 
no-nerd I am. I've now bought most of 
my old favorites on tape and, regressing 
a bit, still get a kick oul of reliving those 
wonderful afternoons. 

Anyway, I see all these neat old ra- 
dios. In the earlier yeans, they were as- 
sorted brands: tiie Abbotts, the Bre tings 
and so fortii. But after 1940 or so, 
theyYe alt Hallicrafters: S-20R, SX-24, 
SX-2a, KT-9, etc. 

So I Inave to ask: What did Bill Haltl- 
gan have to do to turn every kid tn town 
on to Hallicrafters radios for so many 
years? They were always the current 
models for the year the film was made, 
too. 

Why were there never any other 
makes? (One exception was the Nation- 
al NC-240 seen in the spy movie "The 
House on 92nd Street,' but ttial wasn't a 
Republic film. 

This might make a joyful piece for 73. 
Vm in full agreement with those who 
want more historicat slutf. but not jusi 
League history; I really enjoyed your 
dad"s eaily flying tales. Since we hams 
are mostly a bunch of old farts, a little 
nostalgia might just be In order. You'll 
never get us back to the beficfi and Etie 
soiderifig iron. 

{I sSH tiave my old Sky Buddy from 
1940. Should I build a QSL-40 to go with 
ft? IVe got the 6L6 and 40 meter adals.) 

And do yoa remember alt the B- 
movies from ProfSucer's Releasing Cor- 
poraSxm? PRCs were afways ei ctteBpa 
i remember their using an S40 a$ a 
iransceiver — switching the standby 
smich to pretend to transmit. 

fM bet there's someone out there wfto 
coufd do a great article on the oid B's 
and Pie Halftcrattefs radios in them , , , 
Wayne 



2 73 Amateur Radio Today • August 1092 



THE TEAM 

PUBLISHER/EDITOR 

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ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER 
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7SAmateur 



August 1992 
Issue #383 



Radio Today 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 




8 
18 
22 
30 
36 
48 



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Cover; S\Q\N-^CdX\ or tast-scsn . . . amateur TV i$ fun . . , and easy f 
Cover photo by BUI Brown WBSELK J David Cassidy N1GPH. 



DEPARTMENTS 



58 Above and Beyond 

73 Ad Index 

70 Ask Kaboom 

50 ATV 

84 Barter 'n' Buy 

6S Oealef Directory 

17 Feedback Index 

6S Ham Help 

G4 Hams with Class 

G6 Hamsats 

54 Homing In 

2 Letters 

4 Never Say Die 

72 New products 

SB Propagation 

57 QRP 

7 QRX 

62 Packets Computers 

68 Random Output 

6€ RTTY Loop 

74 73 Internatjonai 
G2 Special Events 
GG Uncle Wayne's 

Bookshelf 

BO Updates 



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73 Amateur Radio Today* August 1992 3 



Number 2 on your Feedback card 



Ni 



EVER SAY DIE 



Wayne Green W2NSD/1 



Inner City Hams 

One thing you can bet on, none of 
those noters you saw burning and 
footing the inner city businesses were 
hams. The rioiers were, tor the most 
part, gangs on a rampage, So how 
come we have such persistent pover- 
ty? Why are our cities infested with in- 
creasingly large gangs? Well, before 
we can do any!hing about all this we 
have to understanci what's gone 
wrong, U you don't know wiiat's bro- 
ken, you sure aren't tikely to fix it. 
Alas, I see no hint that our politicians 
have a c\u& as to what's gone wrong, 

Y03, there are lots of symptoms — 
any illness has symptoms. And until 
fairly recentfy al! doctors could reaily 
do was treat symptoms and wait for 
the patient to cure or kill himselL So 
we are dwelling on the symptoms of 
poverty, while ignoring the cause. 
We're trying to cope with lousy, over- 
priced housing, we I fare , drugs, crime, 
school dropouts, pimps, the homeless, 
street gangs, organized crime, 
pornography, and so on, 

For the last few months IVe been 
doing a bunch of research on our edu- 
cational system. Oh, we know it's 
failed us in comparison with the edu- 
cational systems of ail other devel- 
oped countries. We've seen one re- 
port after another citing our American 
educational shortcomings. As a mem- 
ber of the New Hampshire Economic 
Development Commission Education- 
al Subcommittee and the Hew Hamp- 
shire High Tech Council's Educational 
Subcommittee, I've been listening to 
and talking with a wide range of edu- 
cators. Further, I've also been doing 
my homeworl<. reading the latest 
books on what's gone wrong with our 
system, plus some very good ideas on 
what to do about it. 

The more Ive read and heard, the 
more convinced 1 am that the root 
cause of poverty in America is the di- 
rect result of our crummy educational 
system. It isn't the blacks. It isn't the 
Hispanics. It isn't drugs. It isn't lazi- 
ness. Et isn't even our incredibly awful 
welfare system, it's our totally out-of- 
date educational system which has 
generated this incredible and expen- 
sive, embarrassing mess. It's also got 
a lot to do with so few kids being inter- 
ested in technical hobbies such as 
amateur radio — so we have a vested 
interest in educational reform. 




Actually, reform is too modest a 
term for what's needed. We have to 
completely reinvent education, not just 
make some changes, Alas, we also 
need to reinvent our political system 
too, I think we can almost agree that 
it's failed us. It was this failure which 
opened the door for even worse politi- 
cal systems such as fascism, social- 
ism and communism. IVlost of us are 
gradually becoming aware of how bad 
the mess in Washington is — and we 
have no reason to hope that it's much 
better with our state governments. 

Weil, let's look at what we can do to 
clean up the educational mess first 
and Ihen, if we have any sun/ivors, we 
can tackle our governmental messes. 
If we can turn around education in 
America p we'll be the strongest coun- 
try In the world In Lechnology, electron- 
ics, money and power. If we don't, 
we're heading down the road of poor 
old Britain — previously known as 
Great Britain. Their educational sys- 
tem, while slightly different from ours, 
also sucks. 

The world, and our schools, moved 
from the agricultural age to the indus- 
trial age. Now it's in the Information 
age. Our schools managed the 
change from agriculture to industry, 
going from about 75 days a year to 
180. The problem is that they haven't 
been able to come to grips with the in- 
formation age. And this is going to 
take a lot more than adding a few 
courses to the curriculum. It's also go- 
ing to have to fit in with the changes in 
family life which television, divorce 
and working parents have brought 
about. The family life of 50 years ago 
is almost completely gone. Children 
aren't being educated during their first 
few years at home by their mothers 
any longer, they're pari<ed in day-care 
centers, hypnotised by "'Sesame 
Streer 

When you consider that It's during 
the first few years that children's 
brains develop and that without good 
stimulation the neuron circuits don't 
develop well — a growth process that 
once missed can't be repaired later— 
you start getting a hint as to why so 
many of today's children can't read, 
can't even speak very well, have short 
attention spans, and are unmotivated. 
And of course, all this Is made even 
worse in the ghettos, where there are 



so many fatheriess homes and 80% of 
the children are Illegitimate. 

Adding to that incredibly bad start, 
which permanently brain-damages 
children, we then subject them to a 
government-run educational system 
which is largely irrelevant to thejr tives. 
We don't teach them about how to 
work with others, how to select a 
mate, or the things they will need to 
know to work as carpenters, plumbers, 
electricians, salespersons, telemar- 
keters, and so on. 

During year two., when they are 
learning to talk, are we teaching them 
American English, or ghetto argot? 
Yes, English is ''whitey talk." but it's al- 
so a key to making success possible 
in this country. By the time they're 
starting in kindergarten their speech 
patterns are so permanently built into 
their brains that it takes an enormous 
amount of work to overcome them. 
Just as it's easy to teach young chil- 
dren to speak many languages, all 
without any accent, if we bypass the 
growth period when their minds are 
building the needed neuron circuits for 
speech, they'll nevor have them. We 
can teach them a foreign language 
when they are in high school, but it's 
ten thousand times more difficult and 
they'll never be able to speak without 
an accent- Well, the same goes for the 
black argot and Hispanic Spanish. 

The black community also is screw- 
ing up their kids by emphasizing the 
wrong role models. Blacks tend to look 
up to athletes, the clergy, entertainers, 
drug dealers and pimps. This certainly 
doesn't encourage kids to think in 
terms of working or being an en- 
trepreneur. This is one reason why the 
Koreans have been able to be so suc- 
cessful setting up fheir stores in black 
neighborhoods. 

By first depriving blacks of the abili- 
ty to speak American English, and an 
interest in learning or working, and 
then dumping them into schools which 
try to get them to memorize facts 
about history, geography, literature, 
and math — things they'll never need, 
we re dooming them to poveri:y. They 
must, by law, go to the public school 
they're assigned. Doesn't this whole 
program qualify as cajel and unusual 
punishment? Is it any wonder we have 
so few black hams managing to sur- 
vive this educational holocaust? 



The more I read about our educa- 
tional system, the more inclined I am 
to agree with the few brave educators 
who are crying for radical changes. 
They claim that with a better start dur- 
ing the first through fifth years, kids 
could learn to read and write in a year 
or two and be able (and motivated) to 
pursue their own educations from then 
on. Understandably, many teachers 
and teacher unions are ready to fight 
to the death to preserve the present 
system. 

Kids work better in teams, with 
coaches instead of teachers. It's 
called cooperative education and it's 
worked miracles where it's beer\ tried. 
But the most important change need- 
ed is in day care, where kids need to 
be exposed to the stimuli their brains 
need to help them develop during their 
early years. A public investment in 
better preschool education will repay 
its cost a thousand times over in lower 
crime rates, a gradual reduction in sin- 
gle parent families, a better educated 
work force, and a higher standard of 
living for everyone. We have no need 
for poverty. It benefits no one. It is 
possible for everyone to make more 
money. 

With better preschool education, 
and with a school system which is rel- 
evant to life for kids — a non-compuEso- 
ry system— we can turn this inner city 
mess around- It's time to stop blaming 
the street gangs for crime, drugs, 
burning and looting, and fix the situa- 
tion which has resulted In this disaster. 

A Street Gang Solution 

So what can we do with the mess 
we have right now, with tens of thou- 
sands of uneducated blacks and His- 
panics in street gangs? It's too late to 
read and speak English, so are they a 
completely lost cause? They need to 
be encouraged to learn skills so they 
can work in trades. If we had prisons 
which really refomned people instead 
of merely making them better educat- 
ed criminals, prison might be a good 
solution. That would help t>reak the 
lousy role model patterns being hand- 
ed down from generation to genera- 
tion. 

But prison not only doesn't refdmn, 
it also costs like crazy. Prison costs 
are higher than health costs and are 
rising even faster. But suppose we 
could both turn prisons into education- 
al centers to teach skills and lower 
their costs by 90-110%? Think that 
might work? With prisons costing 
around $25,000 a year per prisoner, 
it's no wonder so many petty criminals 
are being released by our hopelessly 
overcrowded system. And that hard- 
ened criminals are being paroled ear- 
ly. 

If we can both reduce prison costs 
and turn them into re-education cen- 
ters, we'll be on our way toward solv- 
ing a good deal of our crime and inner 
city gang problems. But how can we 
go about teaching skills and changing 

Continued on page 78 



4 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1992 







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Voice of America 
Club Gets K3V0A 
Cailsign 

The FCC assignment of a specffic cailsign to 
an amateur radio ctub made up of employees 
of another government agency is raising a lot 
of eyebrows in ham circles. 

In an unprecedented move, the FCC has issued 
a license modification to the Voice of America Am- 
ateur Radio Ciub to change its amateur radio call- 
sign from K3EKA to the more recognizable call- 
sign K3V0A. 

For more than 10 years the club has made sev- 
eral informal inquiries in an effort to secure a 
'VOA-suffix'' cailsign, In every case the FCC cited 
the request was specifically prohibited by the regu- 
lations. Rule 97.17(f) states: "A cailsign will be 
systernatically assigned to each station. FCC will 
Issue public announcements detailing the policies 
and procedures of the cailsign assignment system. 
The FCC will not grant any request for a specific 
callsegn." 

During VGA's 50th anniversary in February, the 
new USIA Direcior of the Bureau of Broadcasting 
(which includes VOA), Chase Untermeyer, ex- 
pressed a desire to visit the VOA ARC ham shack. 
Club president Al Brown WA3FYZ, felt that this 
would be a perfect opportunity to ask Mr. Unter- 
meyer to intervene on the club's behalf and ask 
the FCC chairman to grant an exception. Mr, Un- 
termeyer agreed and asked Al Brown to draft a let- 
ter for him to sigri, which was sent to Alfred Sikes, 
chairman of the FCC, in March. 

In his repiy, Mr. Sikes states that considering 
the importance of the 50th anniversary of the 
Voice of America and that other governments 
around ttie world have issued VQA-suffix callsigns, 
"I have asked . . that Rule 97.17(f) be waived and 
that the VOA headquarters amateur radio station 
be issued a VOA-sufJix' caiEsign." 

The license of the new cailsign K3V0A was 
mailed from the FCC office in Gettysburg, Penn- 
sylvania, on May 7th. 

To our knowledge, Ihis is the first time since the 
adoption of FCC Rule 97.17(f) that a waiver has 
been granted. The rule really dates back to the 
early 1970s when it was fairly common for the 
FCC leadership to reward distinguished amateurs 
and notable organizations with preferential caEl let- 
ters at no cost. TNX W5YI Report, Volume 14, /s- 
sue mi, June 1, 1992. 



Has UPS Given Up 
on 220?! 



It appears as if United Parcel Service has 
changed its mind about developing an all-AC- 
SSB voice and data network in the newly real- 
located 220-222 MHz band. On May 14, the Tulsa 

World (Oklahoma) newspaper reported that UPS 
had entered into an agreement with GTE, McCall, 
Pac'Tef and Southwestern Bell to use cellular tele- 
phone frequencies for data communications be- 
tween its five thousand trucks and their offices. 
A United Parcel spokesman was quoted as say- 



ing: ''We have the fleet. We have worldwide com- 
puter communications. And now, we link it all to- 
gether as the first cellular data network." 
Amateur radio operators in the Tulsa area and 

elsewhere are now wondering if this means that 
United Parcel Service has abandoned its well-pub- 
licized plans to use the lower two megahertz of the 
former 220-225 MHz amateur band for their corpo- 
rate wide communications network. TNX Mike 
Reynolds W0KIE and Westlink Report, Number 
627, June 15, 1992. 



VECs Hold Annual 
Conference on 
Ham Testing 

Volunteer Examiner Coordinators represent- 
ing more than 98% of all amateur radio opera- 
tor license examinations conducted in the am- 
ateur service met on June 11 and 12 in Gettys- 
burg, Pennsylvania, at their annual conference. 
Several FCC officials and 12 out of 18 VECs were 
present at the meeting. 

In his opening remarks, Personal Radio Branch 
Chief John B. Johnston congratulated the VEC 
System for efficiently coordinating 41,000 exam 
sessions, examining 477,000 applicants and ad- 
ministering 777,000 test elements in its nine years 
of operation since 1984. That is a record for 
which you should be very proud." 

Johnston, and later Private Radio Bureau Chief 
Ralph Halier, both ticensed amateurs, covered 
many items of general interest to the ham commu- 
nity Johnston pointed out that the Technician class 
has become the entry level of choice. He also told 
attendees that: '1n spite of the additional work 
youVe been doing, you have been able to actually 
improve on quality. The defective applications 
(0,4%) were the best ever, You are doing a good 
job. And this is very important because an error on 
an application hurts everyone. There are labor 
costs to correct that error. Labor that should be 
spent on providing a faster speed- of-sen/ice must 
be diverted to obtaining the correct information for 
that defective application. It delays the processing 
of al! licenses . . . and it delays the newcomer from 
getting on the air." 

Johnston also noted that: "Your system is far 
superior to the previous [FCC] system. There are 
many more locations where examinations are ad- 
ministered. . . . Your system is superior in terms of 
the days of the week exams are administered. Ex- 
ams can be taken on the weekends and in the 
evenings. Your VEs solved the problem of limited 
opportunity. 

There is a big improvement in the questions. 
We were never able to keep the written exams 
current with the rules or with your state-of-the-art. 
We never were able to provide enough different 
code tests. Our exams were always compromised 
the very first time they were used," 

Johnston also discussed the Technician Plus 
data base, rulemaking and the question poofs, vol- 
untary and involuntary retesting, and handicapped 
code credit. 



Ralph Halier said that the FCC is looking into a 
program of "auto grant" 24-hour licensing 
turnaround through electronic filing. The goal is 
paperless communications with Gettysburg. The 
requirement that the FCC actually see a written 
signature on the Form 610 application will be elim- 
inated under a new amendment to FCC Authoriza- 
tion legislation now in process. Actual signatures 
would be kept with the VEC." 

Mailer also said there would be a proceeding is- 
sued shortly that would relax the ''no business" 
communications rule. TNX W5YI Report, Volume 
14, m2, June 15. 1992 



Revised Form 610 
Amateur Application 
issued ^ 

The FCC's Forms Distribution Center has re- 
ceived a large shipment of revised "Application for 
Amateur Radio Station/Operator License," Form 
610. It carries an issue date of March 1992 al- 
though it has just recently been received at the 
forms warehouse. 

The form Is now being printed on goldenrod 
rather than buff colored paper It is the first revision 
in more than two years and carries an expiration 
date of February 28, 1995. It is six pages iong due 
to four pages of instructions. Here are some of the 
changes; 

(1h) The new form now includes the Physician's 
Certification of Disability ^n6 Patient's Release 
needed for handicapped 13/20 wpm telegra- 
phy exemption, it is no longer necessary to 
submit another form with the application to ob- 
tain a handicapped telegraphy exemption, VEs 
are instructed to write in the letter "H' in the 
Administering VEs Report in Item C under Ele- 
ment 10. 
(2.) Appiicants are now required to initial all re- 
quests for a cailsign change. (Section I, Line 
2E.) 
(3,) Section I, Line 6 (Date of Birth) now has hy- 
phens (rather than slant bars) to eliminate the 
possibility that the slant bar might be mistaken 
for the figure '1.'' Instructions now require that 
two figures be placed in each of the month, 
day and year spaces. For iVIay 1, 1947. write in 
05-01-47 {not 5-1-47). 

These forms are available from the FCC's 
Forms Distribution Center by leaving a message 
on the phone (202/632-FORM), TNX W5Y1 Re- 
port, Volume 14, Issue ill, June 1, 1992. 



TNX 



... to all our contributors! You can reach us by 
phone at (603) 924—0058, or by mall at 73 Maga- 
zine, Route 202 North, Peterborough NH 03458. Or 
get in touch with us on CompuServe ppn 
70310,775; MCI Mail ^^WGEPUB"; or the 73 BBS at 
(603) 924—9343 (300—2400 bps), S data bits, no 
parity, one stop bit. News items that don't make it in- 
to 73 are often put in our other monthly publication, 
Radio Fun, You can also send news items by FAX at 
(603} 924—9327. 



73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1992 7 



Number 4 on your Feedback card 



The Viewport VGA 

Color SSTV System 

At last— a versatile slow-scan TV program and interface for the IBM PC. 

by J, R. Montalbano KA2PYJ 



A ROBOT compatible color SSTV 
system for Ihe IBM PC has been 

long awaited. The lack of affordable 
display comroller boards capable of 
displaying more than 16 colors has 
made such a system unfeasible. This 
situation isi changing as the cost of dis- 
play controllers capable of displaying 
mofe than 32 thousand colors is drop- 
ping below SI 60. At the 1992 Dayton 
HamVeniion. 1 dcmonsiraicd an IBM 
compatible SSTV system which can 
send and receive air- worthy SSTV 
pictures using an incKpensfve hard- 
ware interface and a computer 
equipped with one of these standard 
displays. To date* over 1 00 hams are 
enjoying SSTV using a system 1 call 
Viewport VGA. This article describes phoro A, The VtewPart VGA interface aihws yon to receive and 
the hardware and software of that sys- tratismit color SSTV with an IBM PC or compatible. 
tem. 




I 



Hardware Requirements 

The hardware interface is a modi- 
fied version of John Langner*s 
(WB20SZ) interface to the Atari ST 
(73 Magazine, Decctnbcr 1989 and 
January \^W). That board was de- 
signed to connect to a high-speed seri- 
al port on the Atari computer. The PC 
does not have a fast enough serial in- 
terface, so I modified the board to 
connect to the PC's printer pon. Fig- 
ure 1 shows the station configuration 
for the system. 

The software has been tested on 
systems ranging from a 4 J7 MHz XT 
to a 33 MHz 386. TTie hardware inter- 
faces 10 LPT I at address S378 or 
LPT2 and address S278. You will 
need at least 640K of memory. This 
system requires a VGA board that can 
display 256 colors at 320 x 200 reso- 
lution. The software also supports the 
latest HiColor™ VGA display 
adapters. These arc capable of dis- 
playing 32,768 colors on your VGA 
screen. The results arc excellent. 

Compatibility With Existing SST\' 
Modes 

Many new stow-scan television 
formats have been introduced since 
the early days of eight*second B/W 
transmission. Each has its own advan- 
tage in terms of resolution, transmis- 
sion time and noise immunity. The 
mode names usuallv idemifv tteir in- 
venters, followed by a reference to the 

8 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 



■^ 



14,230 



o 



VGA 
DISPLAY 



V. 






SSTV IN 



PTT 



SSTV OUT 



DATA OUT 



MIc 



LPT 
PORT 



Power 
Sypply 



Figure L ViewForf VGA station configuration. 




Phow B. The SSTV imerface board. 



transmission speed in seconds (e.g. 
ROBOT 72 or AVT 94). A computer* 
based system such as this offers the po- 
tential for compatibility with all of the 
modes since the format decoding is 
done in software. At the time of this 
writing, the software supports the most 
popular ROBOT modes, (see Table I). 
You win tie able to receive about 80% 
of the pictures transmitted on the popu- 
lar SSTV operaiing frequencies. A ver- 
sion to support the European B/W and 
Wraase modes is being tested and will 
be available soon. Other modes may be 
added in the future, 

Slow-Scan Demodulator 

The demodulator is similar to the 

one presented in "Color Computer 
SSTV." by K6AEP and WBBDQT, in 
the November and December 1 984 is- 
sues of 73 Magazine. Ttie demodulator 
converts the FM-modulated slow-scan 
audio signal into an amplitude-modu- 
lated video signal* This AM video sig- 
nal is converted to digital format by an 
A/D converter where it can be read by 
the PC through a primer port. The com- 
puter interprets the digital signals from 
the A/D to produce the correct display 
on the computer monitor. 

The slow- scan audio signal is first 
amplitode-limited by Ulb. Tltc square 
wave output of Ulb drives two band- 
pass filters built around Ula and U2b. 
One of these (U2b) has a center fre- 
quency of about 1 200 Hz and the other 
(Ula) has a center frequency of about 
2300 Hz, When the outputs from ihese 
filters are recti fied and summed out of 
phase by Li2A, the result is an ampli- 
tude-modulated audio signal The band- 
pass fdters built around U3a^ U3b and 
U4b pass only the video components 
below 950 Hz. RO and RV set the off- 
set and gain of U4 to produce a zero 
voU DC at TP-3 with 1200 Hz input 
frequency and 5 volts DC with a 2300 
Hz input signal. 

Figure 2 shows the waveform pre- 
sent at TT-3 w hen a five-step gray- 
scale signal is input to the demodulator. 
The clock input of the A/D (U12) is 
strobed at a rate controlled bv Hk soft- 

■r 

ware. Each lime UI2 is strobed, an 8- 
bit wcffd is output at D0-D7, which rep- 
resents the amplitude of ihe waveform 
at TP-3 at that instant. U12 outputs 
Hexidecimal SOO for 1200 Hz (sync). 



If you're living in an anea with 
antenna restrictions, if youYc 
tired of hasfillng with huge muW 
element yagis or if you're just 
looking for a compact, rugged, 
easy-to-use portable antenna 
thai really worh\ the 150 watt 
IsoLoop 10-30 (MHz) HF 
Antenna is the Perfect Solution 
to your antenna problems. 

The IsoLoop 10-30 has been 
redesigned to provide 
greater durability, lower SWR 
and extended frequency coverage. 
Because the loop is isolated 
from the feedline, your mdiated 
power goes into the antenna^ 
not into the shack. Efficiency 
is maximized because the new 
design has no mechanical joints 
md no assembly is required 
No ground plane or antenna 
tuner needed I 

The IsoLoop comes fully 
assembled complete with 
LC-2 Loop Controller (includ- 
ing signal strength LEDs) and 
50 feel of control cable in a 
UPS shippable package. 



his HF antenna goes where 
few others have eone before! 



T 

Sre tlie IsoLoop 10-30 today 
at your favorite AEA dealer. 

For a complete specification 
sheet on this or any other 
AEA product, call the toll-free 
I AEA Lit-Line at 1-800^32-8873 







. *r^ 




LC'2 
Loop Controller. 



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All specificatrons subject to change without notice or obllgatTOn. 
C> A£A. Inc. 1 991 , All Rights ReservegS, 



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"1 


»• 


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Inc. 


AT ^^.^a^^H 


^^K. "' 









^ -M&J^K' 




4 








4] 


» 1 

1 




•. 'It* 




• ' i 





/ 


5 vam 


VDitt 



Figure 2, Waveform at TP-3 wiih gray-scale 
input. 

S46 for 1500 Hz (black) and SFF for 2300 H^ 
(while). Video levels between black and while 
arc repn^senied by 8-bii values between S46 and 
IFF. Ul I mulliplexes the 8-bit output of the 
A/D inio two 4"bit nibbles so that Ihls data can 
be input to the four status input biis available on 
any standard Centronics printer interface* 

Slow-Scan Modulator 

The modulator is a modem digital design thai 
never requires adjusiment. The time base for ihe 
circuit is a 4 MHz cr>^sial (X 1 ). U5 and U6 are a 
divide-by-n counter w^hich is programmable by 
ihc PC ihrough biis PD0-PD7 on ihe printer in- 
terface. U7, U8 and R42-R44 produce a sine 
wave ouiput whose frequency is 250,000/(256- 
n), where "n*" is the 8-bit value presented on 
PD0-PD7 by the computer. 

When both PD6 and PD7 are high, Kl opens 
and the tnierface is in ihe receive mode. When 
cither RD6 or RD7 are low, relay Kl cnergis^cs 
to key the rig and to connect the modulaior out- 
put to the rig*s audio input. 

The circuit built around UI3 prevents ihe in- 
terface from entering the transmil mode when 
the PC initializes the printer port during power 
up. The QD ouiput i& cleared at power up» or 
when the interface is in the receive mode. The 
software strobes U 1 3-4 eight times to enable the 
transmit mode. 

Construction 

Several poini-io-poini and wire- wrapped pro- 
totypes have been built successfully. Alicmate- 
ly, a PC board and/or a complete kit of parts is 
available from A & A Engineering (252! W. 
LaPalma. Unit K, Anaheim CA 92801; (714) 
952-21 14, see the Parts Lisi for details), A 25- 
{nn D-SUB connector is used for the inierface- 
to-prinicr port connection. A microphone con- 
nector is used to connect audio and PTT to your 
rig. In addition a +/-12-volt 100 mA and a 5- 
voll 300 m A power supply are required. 

Alignment 

Connect the interface to your computer's 

printer port. You must change the LPT: parame- 
ter in SSTYCFG to LPT: 2 if you connect the 
interface lo LPT2. Connect the modulator's tape 
output to the demodulator input with a jumper 
wire. Select the Loopback function from the 
SETUP menu (see Photo G). This causes the 
modulator to produce a sequence of 1200 Hz, 
1500 Ml, 1900 Hz and 2300 Hz tones. The pro- 
gram reads the resulting values from ihe A/D 
convener and displays them graphically. Adjust 
RO atid RV until the indicators line up with the 



corresponding arrow heads. The indica- 
tors for the sync and white levels should 
just reach iheO and 255 aipows. If you go 
beyond those points, you may not be 
able lo selthe 1500 and 1900 Uz levels 
correctly. Press ibe space bar to momen- 
tarily pause the program. The values dis- 
played on ihe right side of the screen 
should be within 4/* 4 of 70, 164 and 
255, 

{NOTE: Those af you fortunate 
enough to have 486 mavhines will need 
to switch them out of the turbo mode 
when running the toopback program.} 

Operation 

The user interface is quite simple 
since it was designed for single 
keystroke operalions. There are four photo C, An actual received image mng the View- 
menus in the current software (Photos Port VGA SSTV system. 
D-G), Switch bclween the RECEIVE 
and TRANSMIT menus by pressing "r" 




''*V 




i-^*<g^-s<<5 



Figure 3. (ah Schematic diagram of the SSJl^ demodulator section, (b) Schcfnatic of the SST\^ 
modulator sectioti. 



10 73 Amateur Radio Today • August. 1 992 




CAN YOU SPOT THE ANTENNA? 



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The 2nn, 220, 440, and scanner 
versions are only $49.95 




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73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1992 11 



mm^ 




uiett 



m Scu telef if toi 3^ 
m 1991, i99Z - iolii noftUlUn? 



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IflZrifJ; 



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SfCtD 



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SfXOS Ml 

' siami Ml 



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^ipiiiip 




Photo D. The Main menu of the SSTV program. 










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5 



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^)f^ 



tn 



nr 



U1 
7B06 



qi4 *SV 



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03 



CHil 




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SfLED 

t^ SEOBift Mi 
Z4 SECOIfl 1^ 
3h SECm Mi 

% SECdtn mm 

72 SECOftl COLOI 



inm^n 



Figure 4. Power supply schematic diagram. 



IHX CUMXHT HifFES RO&t IS lOBOl 



Photo E. The Transmit menu of the 5571' program 



or ''I." Press ''escape" to bring up ihe ADDI- 
TIONAL FUNCTIONS menu from which you 
can load and save pictures lo disk. Tlic SETUP 
menu can be accessed from the ADDITIONAL 
FUNCTIONS menu. Pressing ''q*' ai any menu 
Icmiinates the program. 

Receive Mode 

Modem SSTV transmission formats fnclydc 
a digilaf header called a Vertical Interval Srgnal 
(VIS) 10 indicate to the receiver the mode being 
scni. The current software does not support the 
VIS in ihc receive mode. Couneous SSTV op- 
eraiofs will also identify the mode by voice be- 
fore transmission. Listen for the sending station 
to send two shon tones which signal the i^tart of 
a piciure* Press the appropriate function key to 
be^in reception. Press any key during reception 
to abort. 

The program uses the VGA's 320 pixels by 
200 lines display mode. Modes that use 128 
pixels by 120 lines are displayed in fulL Modes 
with mure than 200 lines will be received in 
full* but only the first 200 lines wilt be dis- 
played. When the transmission is complete, 
press any key to return to ihe main menu (see 
Photo D). The received picture disappears from 
ihe screen, but is saved in memory. Press EN- 
TER 10 re-display the picture. This time, the 
software **losses oui" every sixth scan line so 



that the entire picttue fits 
on the 200 line display. 
While receiving, ihc 

program displays the pic- 
lure with a default palette 
of colors selected from 
236 thousand possible 
choices. Although this 
produces reasonably good 
pictures, you have the op- 
tion to do some image pro- 
cessing to improve them. 
Press ESC to enter the Ad- 
ditional Functions Menu 
(see Photo F). Save the 
picture to disk. Yoii will be prompted for a file 
name. After the file is written, selecting CUS- 
TOM COLOR PALETTE LOAD invokes an 
image processing function which analyzes the 
picture to make a belter selection of 256 colors 
with which to represent the picture. Enter !he 
file name of the picture previously saved to 
disk. The rtHiiine takes about 30 seconds on a 
20 MHz 386. so be patient. When the routine 
finishes, it will display the improved picture. 
There is no need lo save this version of the pic- 
lure since it is already saved with 32K color res* 
olution. 

You should be aware that since the VGA can 
display only 256 colors* a small error in fre- 
quency can result in a large eiror in color. The 
received picture will usually be too pink or too 
green if you are off frequency, A scope connect- 
ed to TP3 makes a convenient tuning indicator 
While receiving a slow -scan signal tune the rig 
so that the tips of the sync pulses are at zero 
volts. With praciiccT yot^ will team to tunc in 
pictures without using the scope. Some stations 
now have the capability to send a constant 1200 
Hz tone. While in the RECEIVE menu, press- 
ing "+" will produce 5 seconds of 1200 Hz au- 
dio from your PC's speaker. Use this tone to ze- 
ro beat the received tone. 

While in the TRANSMIT menu (see Photo 
F), pressing "+** will send 5 seconds of 1200 Hz 



aeainsi which other stations can zero beat their 
locally generated 1200 Hz tone. 

You should also be aware thai the ROBOT 
modes arc susceptible to noise. In particular, 
when noise occurs during a sync pulse, the soft- 
ware might skip an entire scan line of the video. 
Noise which occurs during a scan line gets 
translated into video and typically appears as 
"snow," { have received "closed circuit" pic- 
tures with S-7 to S-9 signals and a noise level of 
about S*3, Keep in mind that ihe overall signal 
to noise ratio is more important than the signal 
strength. 

TVansmit Mode 

Most SSTV operators using commercial 
equipmcni have a video capture device with 
which to digitize their own piciures. There are 
many such devices available for the IBM PC 
ranging in price fmm S89 to $3^,000, The least 
expensive boards can digitize monochrome 
video only. Each frame takes several seconds to 
digitize, so the subject must remain very siiil. 
This type of board is referred to by slow-scan- 
ners as a "digitizer." Creative SSTV operators 
have learned to use digitizers to produce color 
pictures by using color filters in front of the 
camera lens and then mixing red, green and 
blue frames to make a composite color picture. 

The more expensive devices (S350 and up) 
accept an NTSC video signal from your color 
camera or VCR and digitize a frame in 1/30 of a 
second. These are referred lo as Real Time 
Frame Grabbers. These are more appropriate for 
digitizing live subjects such as yourself proudly 
posed in front of your hard-earned ham equip- 
ment. Some examples of digitizers arc: Color- 
bursty Vcntek and Digital Vision Computereyes. 
\Ed. Note: See this m&mk's ATV cohimn for a 
discussion of video digitizers.] 

Either type of device will usually come with 
software which controls the digitization and 
storage to disk of pictures. These usually store 
the digital picture in a common image file for- 
mat such as GIF, PCX or TGA. ViewPon VGA 



12 73 Atnateur Radio Today • August, 1992 




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pictures and offer a wide 
variety of subject matter. 
Use a program such as 
VPIC 10 convert the GIF 
format to PCX furmat. 
This will usually produce 
files with resolutions be- 
yond the 256 \ 240 SSTV 
format. Use a program 
such as Zsoft's PC Paint- 
brush (256 color version) 
or Alchemy Mindworks 
Graphic WorkShop to 
scale 640 x 480 images to 
256 X 240 pixels or 320 x 
200 images to 256 x 200 
and save them as a PCX 
files. 

Press ESC to bring up 
the Additional Functions 
Menu. Load a picture file. 
Enter the file name at the 
prompt. The picture will 
be loaded in full 32K color 
resolution and displayed 
on the screen in 256 col- 
ors* Press any key to re- 
turn to the main menu. 
Announce to the receiving 
station (and to the dozens 
of others who are ''just lis- 
tening in'") what transmis- 
sion mode you will be us- 
ing. Now select that mode 
by pressing the appropriate 
funcdon key. The software 
will send the VIS code for 

„ „, ^ ^ that mode, followed by the 

Photo G. The Parameter Setup menu. ^.^^^^^ j^ ^^^^ ^jU .^_ 

dicate what mode you are transmitting in. Press 
any key during the transmission to abort. 

Improve Your Image With ViewPort 32K 

Many hams are enjoying Viewport VGA on 
their standard 256 color VGA adapters. Others 
have upgraded to the HiColor VGA boards 
which display received pictures with full-color 
resolution. ViewPort 32K supports HiColor 
VGA boards tiianufactured by Swan TechDolo- 
gies. United Solutions and Diamond SpecdSiar. 
I recommend the Diamond SpeedSTAR HiCol- 
or board since it is shipped with a copy of Win- 
RIX, a very powerful piccure editing and titling 
program which runs under Microsoft Windows. 
ViewPort 32K software is enabled by setting the 
HICOLOR parameter in the file called 
SSTV.CFG to HICOLOR: 1 . 

Pictures are displayed with 256 colors as 
they are received. Pressing the enter key at the 
end of the transmission causes the picture to be 
repainted instantly using 32,768 colors. 

Comments 

ViewPort VGA is the resuh of hundreds of 
hours of experimeniaiion, programming and on- 
air testing on my part. I owe many thanks to 
John Langncr WB20SZ who inspired me to 
take on this project and who openly shared his 
experience with the Alari version of the system. 
Special thanks to Johann N5CST whose 20 over 
9 signal was my SSTV test generator into the 






BLK 1 




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(Viewed from cable end) 

1 -Mike Hot 

2=PTT (Hot) 

3=PTT {Ground if applicable) 

4=Mike Ground 

BLK 

PTl 







Figure 5. Microphone jack wiring to the 
SS'fV interface. 

version 2.4 software supports the 256 color 
PCX and 32K color TGA file formats. 

If you do not own a video camera or frame 
grabber, you can find thousands of pictures 
stored in the GIF^^ file format on computer 
bulletin boards and sold on floppy disks at ham- 
fests. Use only the ones made for 256 color 
VGA displays. These are usually high quality 



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73 Amateur Radio Today kv}Qu^\, 1992 15 



Parts List 



Rl6^17.Rie.FI33, 

R37.B42.R40.R45 

R3,R35,R4I,R46.R47, 

R4a. R4&,R50. R5 1 ,R54 

R4 

R5,R6.R8,R34 

R7.R32,R53 

RaR19,a20.R21.R36.R43 

R10,R31 

Fi11.R1^H38.R5£ 

R22 . R23, R2S,R29.H44 

R24,R30 

R2S.R26 

R27.R39 

bb 

CI .C2.C4.C5.G6.C7.CtO 
C3 



C8.ci2,cae 

C9,C13 

Ctl 

CU.C1&.C20,C2t.C2e-C3a 1 pF mono capacitor 



1 Oh rQsis^tor 

1 k resi^iqr 

1 MEG r&sistor 

1 5k resistor 

470 ohm resistor 

22k rcslslor 

e-8k resiSlor 

4.7k resislor 

30k resistor 

27k resi^Of 

1|lk reststOf 

IQQIt tt&s\or 

11c pane) mourn 

poietjomeicf 

1 k/ 1 S lum vetticaJ mot^ 

PCQ potentiomeier 

00:^ uF mylar capacitor 

0.001 uf ceramic disc 

capacitor 

0.005 ^F m/l9f capacEtof 

0.002 ^F mylar capacitor 

0.001 pF mylar capacilor 



Cl5,Cl7,Cia,C22 

cm 

C23 

C24,C25 

C27 

D1>D12 

Q1 

Yl 

U1.tJ2,U3pU4 

U5.U6.U7 

U8 

ug 

UlO.UtI 

U12 

U13 

Ut4 

UtS 

K1 

Pt 

P2 

P3 

P4 

P5 

Qptiuftai Power Supply 

CI 

C4,C7 

C2,C5,Ce 

C3,C6,C9 

DT,D2 

D3 



1 |iF radial eteclrotyllc 

capacdGHT 

47 \iF radial electrolytic 

capacitor 

0.47 fiF mono rapacftor (474) 

&30 of (Ssc capactor 

1 ^F radiaJ eapacitor 

iN4t4d diode 

MPSA 1 3 iransisitor 

4.D00MH2 crystal 

|J^t45SlC 

74LSt6l IC 

74LSa6 

74LS00 

74LS241 

ADC0820 

74LS93 

74LSH 

74LSDJ 

tSVOCrelaijr 

4-pin O.ise'b^der 

5-pin 0,100" h^der 

8'pir O.ISS'heatfef 

7-piri 1 OO" header 

£i^in PCB female D 

(computer I/O) 



2200 pF/teV radiat elearolytic 

470 tiF/35 V radial electrolyte 

2.2 jiF radial 

0.1 |iF disc c&famle 

1N4004d(0de 

200V @ 1A. W02M (or WB152) 

dtode biidge 

111 7605T 

112 7B12T 

113 7912T 

T1 ^ VCT m 140 mA A 9V © 0.5A, 

MPC'X-1Z power transfdrmer (or AAA t10-X-12} 
msc heatsnic PC board 

NOTEiThe foUowing are avaitable Jrom AAA Er»gine«r- 
ing. 2521 W. UPalma, Unit K. Anat^eim CA 93dOU 
Phore: (714) 552-2114, FAX: (714) 952-^80, 

Complete kit whicti includes powor supply, main SSTV 
interface board and a prepuncl^ed, painted and lettered 
aluminum onci^ssui-e 

#139-ENC $169.95 

Compieteiy assombled and tested SSTV interface unit 
in its case 

iia9-ASY $^9.96 

Board Ifivet kii without Uie ca&e or moLtnting hardware 

#189-Krr S129,95 

Bisfik SSTV PC board 

flSS-PCB SI 9.06 

BSank power supply PC boa/d 

t133-PCB $7.9S 

frfort, 2S'ptn maJe to male cable 

#&25'MM $10.00 

SItEpptng/tnsu ranee is 85 addittorLal per ordef, Canfomia 
reslderrts please add 7.75% sales tax 



wee hours of many a laic nighu and to W3LDS, 
WB2YRH, WB40Q, K4FJK, N4TZI, KF4ZC, 
WA3YAH and KA8LWR who wired and Ecsicd 
ihe firsi pruioiypes. 

I hope that this project allows many of you to 
paftlcipaie in ihis exciltng operating mode* As i 
courtesy to stations that operate in other modics, 



Using the ROBOT 400 for Color Receive 

Owr>ers of the or^ce popular ROBOT 400 BAW scan converter wIT! be happy to know that Ihey can up* 
grade itie ROBOT 400 lo receive color pictures on a PC with VGA display for about S20 Figure 6 is a 
schematic of ttiat interfacs. The audto irtpul to this circuil is connected across the Receive Contrast 
control on the 400. The ROBOT 400 provides all the necessary power supplies* 
To modily the ROBOT remove the cover and unplug the main circuil board. You'll find plenty of room 
in the bottom of the ROBOT unit to mount the interface circuit shown in Figure 6. Ttiere is a terminal 
strip Inside of the 400 where you can tap Into 5 volts and -i-h 12 volts for the Interface cin:^uil. When 
you mount the circurt in place, make sure you have the RO and RV pots positioned so that you can 
reach them with a tuning tool through small holes in the ROBOT Tap the interface circuit onto the 
tior lead of tt>e Receive Contrast control on the 400 as shown and run a ribtwn catrfe out of the 
ROBOT between the chassis and the case over to your compute rs parailei port If you want a fander 
installatiar>, you may wan! to mount a DS~25 connector on the back of Ihe ROBOT. Then just reinstall 
the ROBOT main PC board and power it up. 

To adjust the ROBOT interlace circuit, send a 1200 Hz tone into the audio input and adjust poten- 
tiometer RO for volts as measured at test point TP3. Then send a 2300 Hz tone and adjust poterv 
tiometer RV for a reading of 5 volts at TP3. Since there is some interaction between the two adjust- 
ments, you will have to repeat these two steps until you achieve the final results, fvlow just run the 
Viewport software and you have an inexpensive, but powerful, color SSTV receive system. 

SSTV Nets 



IVCA 

North American 

South Amencan 

European 

South Pacific 



Sal isooura 14^30 mhz 

Sat. 1800 UTC, 14.230 MHz 
Wed. 2300 UTC, 14.236 MHz 
Sat 1300 UTC, 14.233 UHl 
Sun. 0400 UTC, 14.247 MHz 



Parts Availability 

VfewPort VGA Release 2.4 Is shipped by A & A Engineering with the purchase of a bare board or kit. 

Viewport VGA software is not copy protected so that it can be made easily available to you through 

bulletin boards and other hams. KA2PYJ requests a registration fee of $12 from users of the software. 

The Viewport software Is also available from the 73 BBS at (603) 924-9343, if you don't have access 

to a modern^ you can send Si 2 directly to the author for a copy of the latest version, please indicate 

your disk forniat. 

For the latesl version of VPIC, send $20 to: Bob Montgomery, 543 Ym Fontana #203, Attamonle 

Springs FL 32714-3172, 

For the latest version of Graphk; Worlishop, send $40 to: Alchemy Mindworks* Inc., P.O, Box 500, 

Beeton Ontaiki LOG lAO, Canada, 

HiCotor is a trademark of Sierra Semiconductors. 

Diamond Computer Systems (Model- Diamond Speedslar HC). 532 Mercury Drive. Sunnyvale CA 

94086. Phone: (406) 736-2000. 



W-^ '" 




Figure 6, If you own a ROBOT 400, it can be used as a receive-only front etidf&r the 
IBM PC color SSTV program. This circmi is ail ihaf is needed between the ROBOT 400 
and the IBM PC parallel port for proper operation. 



Table 1 * Slow-Scan Formats 




Currently Supported 


Format 


Colormw 


Ftes^rutfon Commefita 


8 sec. 


&w 


12e X 1 20 Send A. receive 


12 sec. 


B/W 


128 X 120 Send & receive 


£4 &ec> 


sm 


25& X 240 Send & recelvo 


36 sec. 


WW 


236 X 240 Send & racelvG 


7£ sec. 


Color 


256 X 240 Send & receive 


36 sec. 


Color 


256 X 240 Send & receive 


SI 


Color 


256 X 256 Receive only* 


S2 


Co4or 


256 X 258 Recejve only' 


m 


ColDr 


256x250 Beoeiveoniy 


m 


Cok>r 


256 X 256 nece^we only 


^Software to trart^n^ 


in these nn^des ts beng tested and 


wiu be avaiiabic from KA2PYJ soort 



SSTVers try to restrict ihcir opei^ons lo 3.845, 
7J81, 14.230, 14.233, 2! J40 and 28.680 MHz, 
Hence, you will find it very easy lo make a con- 
tact at almost any hour of the day on these fre- 
quencies. Please keep in mind that there arc of- 
ten dozens of stations listening in and paiicndy 
waiting their lum to send a picture or to receive 
others'. Please exercise your best operating 
practices so that we can all continue lo enjoy 
this faniasiic hobby. **Sec'* you on the radio! 



16 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1992 



Feedback 



(n our continuing effort to present the 
best In amateur radio features and 
columnSp we recognize the need to go di- 
rectly to the source — you, the reader. Arti- 
cles and columns are assigned feedback 
numbers, which appear on each arti- 
cle/column and are also listed here. 
These numbers correspond to those on 
the feedback card opposite this page. On 
the card, please check the box which 
honestly represents your opinion of each 
articre or column. 

Do we really read the feedback cards? 
You bet! The results are tabulated each 
month, and the editors take a good, hard 
look at what you do and don't like. To 
show our apprectation. we draw one feed- 
back card each month and award the 
tucky winner a free one-year subscription 
(or extension) to 73. 

Why not fill out the Feedback card and 
put it in an envelope? Toss in a damning 
or praising letter to the editor while you're 
at it. You can also enter your QSL in our 
QSL of the Month contest. All for the low, 
low price of 29 cents! 



1 Letters 

2 Never Say Die 

3 QRX 

4 Viewport VGA Color SSTV System 

5 Compact-A-Loop Antenna 

6 ATV Transmitter, Part L 

7 The Explorer 

8 Digital ALG 

9 Review: 

AEA WeatherFAX Decoder 

1 Review: Larsen KG 2/70 
Glass-Mounted Antenna 

11 Frequency Counter Upgrade 

12 ATV 

1 3 Homing In 

14 QRP 

1 5 Above and Beyond 

1 6 RTTY Loop 

1 7 Packet St Computers 

1 8 Hams with Class 

1 9 Hamsats 

20 Ham Help 

21 Dealer Directory 

22 Ask Kaboom 

23 New Products 

24 73 Internationa! 

25 Updates 

26 Special Events 

27 Barter 'n* Buy 

28 Random Output 

29 Propagation 



THE 

GREAT 

MOBILE 

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CIRCLE lfi5 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

73 Amateur Radio Today • AuQus^i, 1992 17 



Number 5 on your Feedback card 



The Compact- A-Loop 

Antenna 

80 meters for the apartment dweller 



by Richard Q. Marris G2BZQ 



Many of us dream of a super all-band an- 
tenna farm. There is noiliiiig wrong with 
this dream if you have the odd acre or two of 
real estate way out in the slicks. Good luck to 
those fortunate few, Many of us witl have lo 
rely on an unexpecied windfall to provide the 
necessary shekels to achieve this dream. How- 
ever, while waiting for ihe windfall, amateur 
iran&miuing life must go on. Many hams suf- 
fer from lack of space, from official and other 
diaboEical reslriciions, and often from a poor 
ground. The best tde^ is to design/tailor-make 
the besi possible antenna lo fit the existing 
space available* Such is the Compact-A-Loop. 

1 designed the Compact-A-Loop by experi- 
menting wilh various 80 meter band horizon- 
tal loop configurations not needing any RF 
ground. Ii fits into a room with the transmitter 
located on a desk in the comer, and is easily 
adaptable for outdoors space. 

Figure I shows the final Loop circuit, 
which is a horizontal delta shape with a 42' 
circumference (3* x H' sides). The Loop can 
be resonated via a 2-gang variable capacitor 
(C3 and C4), and covers the whole HO meter 
band (35D0-380O kHz). In parallel are ballast 
capacitors C2 and C5 (discussed later in this 
article). Connection to the 50 ohm impedance 
feedlinc is via CI, which is a coupling/match- 
ing capacitor. The usable bandwidth, without 
rctuning, on the prototype is approximaiely 
+/-20 kHz of selected frequency* I tried other 
horizontal loop shapes, including squiire, rect- 
angular, and some very irrcgulaj mukisided 
shapes. The frequency range changed in all 
cases, and the bandwidth was narrower, down 
to +/-3 kHz in one case. Furthermore, to add 
to the complexity, the prDximily of nearby ob- 
jects affected both frequency range and band- 
width. Extensive experiments indicated that 
the tlnal delta shape was way ahead of the oth- 
er shapes. One very obvious reason for this is 
that it is possible to keep all 3* x 14' long sides 
well away from the walls (see Figure 2) and 
other objects. This gave the best usable band- 
width, best transmitter loading and range, and 
best received signals. Low RF power output of 
7 or 8 waUs CW was used in all tests, and k 
used in operation. No harmonic radiation or 
TV I was delectable, 

Tlic Loop is omnidirectional with a useful 
forward '*hump" on B around the junction of 
B and C, Figure 2 shows how this '*hump" has 
been oricmed approximately east southeast, 

iB 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 



B 




LOOP 
IHORtZDhlTAL] 



vehtical 




3' mof ocmH t90*) 



T T f :t T 



nc-M TO jjn 



C^MCITOn WITH gNT^SRJIL 
3 I REOVCTIDN DRIVE 



Figure L Diagram of ihe Compact-A-Loop. 

giving a small peak right across Europe and 
well into the USSR. Ideally, this small peak 
should point westward to get maximum sig- 
nals to North America, but this was not possi- 
ble here. Apan from this small peak, the Loop 
is omnidircctionaL 

Construction 

Tlie Loop consists of 42' of white stranded 
#20 PVC covered wire This is quite adequate 
for low power operation. You may want to use 
larger diameter wire for higher power outdoor 
operation. The Loop was erected with three 
equal sides (A + B + C). It is held iO" below 
the ceiling, and is supported by lengths of 8 lb, 
breaking strain nylon fishing line whicli, along 
with the white PVC wire» is inconspicuous 
against a white ceiling. Figure 4 shows a 
space-saving compressed version, still using 
42 feet of wire (discussed later). 

The ends of A and C are dropped dovtm 3" 
(Figure 2) and filled with 4mm plugs (PL I 
and PL2) to plug into the top of the tuning unit 
(Figure 3). 

The Twining Assenibly 

The tuning unit (Figures 1 and 3) is some- 
what unusual. It is assembled into a plastic 
box raised from the operating desk by a verti- 



cal post so thar the top is just below the apex 
of the loop, which plugs into sockets SK I and 
SK2. A 1/4" (6mm) diameter wood dowel re- 
mote control shaft drops down so that the con- 
trol knob is conveniently reached by just rais- 
ing your left hand a few inches off the desk. 
The resonating variable capacitor (C3 and C4) 
is a 2-gang 210 + 210 pF with integral 3:1 re- 
duction drive. An altemative would be 10 use 
another make and fit an external slow motion 
drive, C2 and C5 are 33 pF (750 volt) silver 
mica ballast capacitors, selected to ensure that 
the 80 meter band is fully covered, Altemative 
values, up to +/-I5 pF, may be required if the 
Loop configuration is changed in shape. The 
frequency range may be affected slightly by 
the proximity of suirounding objects. 

Coupling/matching capacitor CI is a ISO pF 
ceramic ( 1 kV), Ii couples one end of the Loop 
to 5 feet of RG58 coaxiai 50 ohm impedance 
fccdline, which exits through a hole in the rear 
of the box, and is cleated at the back of the 
vertical post, down to the u*ansmitter/receiver. 
In original tests CI was a 250 pF variable ca- 
pacitor — however, I found that 150 pF (on the 
VC) was optimum and not critical, so a fixed 
capacitor was substituted. 

The tuning unit layout is shown tn Figure 
3a, and the actual mounting used here is in 
Figure 3b* The mounting can be adapted to 
suit individual requirements. If the Loop is 
erected in a loft or outdoors^ a remote tuning 
arrangement will have to be devised. If the 
Loop is erected outdoors, it should be possible 
lo put the tuning unit just inside a window. 
The plastic box I used had a metal panel which 
was replaced with a small piece of plastic 
sheet 

Operation and Results 

The resonating capacitors C3 and C4 are 
tuned for maximum signal on **rcceive" at the 

desired frequency. For example, here it is often 
resonated at 3550 kHz, giving a usable range 
of 3530-3570 kHz without retuning C3 and 
C4. The transmitter is loaded into a dummy 50 
ohm load in the usual way. On '^transmit'* with 
the Loop connected, only a very minor adjust- 
ment of C3 and C4 and transmitter loading 
may be needed — if at all. The frequency range 
can rapidly be achieved by adjusting C3 and 
C4, 

1 made a first tentative CQ ai 0400, using 7 
watts CW output when the conditions were 






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Figure 2, fnsmilation of the Loop. 




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Parts List 

C3. C4 21 + 21 pF 2-gang vartatJie capaci- 
tor wtth integral 3:1 reduction drive 
C2, C6 33 pF 750 volt Silver mica capacitor 

tsee text) 
CI 150pFlkV Ceramic disc 

Loop A+B*C is 42 feet of white #20 PVC cov- 
ered stranded wire {larger diameter 
wire is advisable for outdoor Installa- 
tions.). 
PLt/PL2 4mm Banana plugs 

SKiySK2 4mm Banana sockets 

Box Flaslic box 5-1/16' x 2-5/8* x 1 -S/fl" 

Tandy (Radio Shackj. (120 x 65 x 40 
mm), Cat. No. 270-233 Meial lid re- 
placed (see tcxi) 
Feediine RGSS coaxial Approx. 60' used 
Tuniftg t/4" {6mm) wood dowel to required 

length 
Shaft (36' used on prototype) + shaft coupler 
+ bracket and panel bush and knob 



bad. It was immediatEly answered by a station 
about 1,000 miles away. Though his signal 
was very weak, he gave an excellent report. 

Subsequent operating results were quite excel- 
lent between 0300 and 0500, several mornings 
per week. 

Let me stress that this Ltx>p, as described, is 
a low-power antenna for indoor use. High 
power, indoors, can he dangerous and may be 
lethal. If the Loop is erected outdoors, then 
higher power can be used. The wire gauge 
should be increased, and possibly higher volt- 
age rating capacitors shouJd be used. 



CE^LIMO I -Q' NIGH 



COftNEn T 

OF Hoau 



ttEliOTC 
TUHIH6 SHtfT 

WITH iMoe- 




NOTt: 

SHELVES USED FOfl 
EOU I FLUENT AMD 
eOQKE: I NOT SHOWN I 



B) 



FLOOR LEV£L 



LOOP WlUt ABOUT 3* 
BELOW CELLJfC 



SHELF 



BHEUF 



SHE4F 



P«a 



£^ 



DESK 




Figure 3. a) Tuning unit (with remote tuning 

shaft i. h) Configuration used on ihe proto- 
rype. 



Ideas 

The results obtained with the configuTations 
shown in Figures 1 and 2 indicate that the high 
voltage points arc on Loop arm A; B and C 
give maximum radiation, tl is well worth tiy- 
ing a reversal of PLl and 2 in SK 1 and 2. 

During experiments I tried a compressed 
version ol' the Compacl-A-Loop (see Figure 
4), The effective area taken up by the Loop 
was reduced by atx>ut 20/25%, Various angles 
were tried (AB) from 45 to 70 degrees. The 
usable bandwidth was about -h/-15 kHz and an 
extra 15 pF was added to C2 and C5. This was 
still a very usable ^tcnna. 

I didn't try this Loop on other bands, but 
you would have little difficulty in adapting the 
design for ihis purpose. 

Conclusion 

This Loop antenna is a very useful, cfifi- 
cient, low-power device for ihe TXer with re- 
stricted space who wants to work on the 80 
meter band. It is low cost, quick to erect, and 
has very obvious potential for the experi- 
menter. It has given excellent results with no 
measurable harmonic radiation and no TV! on 
a TV receiver very near. 



20 73 Amateur Radio Today* August 1S92 




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ATV Transmitter, Part I 

Get on ATV easily and cheaply, 

by Wilfiam Sheets K2MQJ and Rudolf R Graf KA2CWL 



The ''video revolution" of the 
last decade has made avail- 
able to the average ham low-cost 
cameras and excellent low-cosl 
video monitors. With a suitable 
transmitter, a simple downcon- 
vencr, and a yagi or other anten- 
na !iuilable for 430 MHz use, it 
is a Tairly simple matter to get 
on ATV without mortgaging 
your house or cramming the 
shack with large surplus *'boal 
iinchor** broadcast equipment. 

This article wit! describe a 
simple, efficient ATV transmit- 
ter for the 42(M50 MHz band 
(70cm). It is roughly the size of 
a pack of cigaretEes and runs 
from a 9-volt supply, delivering 
up to I watt of output (PEP), and 
also features full video band- 
width (5 MHz) with built-in audio subcarri- 
er. 

Some possible amateur applications for 
this transmitter are: 

• ATV base station exciter or low power 
transmitter 

■ Video "look ic -talkie*' handhelds, in con- 
junction with a small pocket TV set, 
downconverler, and miniature camera, 

• Radio control applications: aircraft, boats, 
etc*. 

• Video links. 

The ATV IVansmitter 

The transmitter uses 12 transistors, fits on 
a 2.5" X 4" <6.35cm x 10.2cm) PC board and 
directly interfaces with '■''stajidard" video de- 
vices. It requires 1-volt p-p, 75 ohm nega- 
tive synch video (color or B/W) NTSC or 
PAL, and audio input can be 10 mV to IV 
(line level) p-p into 5k ohm. RF output is 
nominally 0.75 to 1.0 watt (peak) into a 50 
ohm load. It is easy to build, very repro- 
ducible and lightweight (about 60 grams or 
2 ozs.)* This design can operate over the 
range of 7 to 10 volts (9V nominal) at about 
300 mA. making NiCd packs a feasible .sup- 
ply for portable or R/C applications. On- 
board audio and video level adjustments are 
included. 

The transmitter is designed for single fre- 
quency operation, but a crystal switch can 
easily be added if muhi frequency operation 
is desirable. While the NTSC system is the 




I, 



Photo. The f-waa ATi' transmitter, 

video format the transmitter is designed 
around^ PAL operation is possible. Remem- 
ber that the transmitter can be thought of as 
an AM transmitter with 5 MHz video band- 
width, and an (optional) added subcarricr at 
4.5 or 5.5 MHz that can be FM modulated. 

This project is also an excellent education 
in soiid-state transmitter circuitry for those 
amateurs wishing to gel some experience in 
this area. Picture quality is excellent, and 
minimal test equipment (VOM, 50 ohm 
load 9V supply) will suffice. 

When building this project, use only the 
parts specified in the Parts List UHF cir* 
cuits can be quite critical as to both compo- 
nent type and value. Also* proper parts 
placement is very important. Lead lengths 



should be very short. Anything 
longer than nearly zero may 
cause problems. Note that !0 
surface mount capacitors (chips) 
are used, as well as ferriie beads. 
Also, tenth-watt (eighth-watt re- 
sistors can be substituted) resis- 
tors and miniature NPO ceram- 
ics are employed for very short 
leads and close component spac- 
ing* Tmy slug-tuned coils, easily 
made by the constructor using 
readily available materials, are 
used rather than commercial, 
hard-to-get. large shielded facto- 
ry-made types. This gets rid of 
coil procurement headaches. If 
the dimensions are followed, no 
problems should result, [n par- 
ticular, supply bypassing is very 
important. We have incorporated chip capac- 
itors to guarantee this. By keeping every- 
thing small, compact, and by using a shield- 
ed, double -sided PC board with good by- 
passing techniques, all the possible "horrors" 
associated with VHF and UHF circuitry can 
be easily dealt with. As long as the design is 
exactly duplicated there is no reason to en- 
counter '"nightmare, off-the-wall, weirdo" 
problems. The coils are easy to wind and the 
largest ones have only eighl or nine turns of 
wire (see Figure 4 and the Table). In fact, 
several are only loops or pieces of wire, 
since inductors required at 440 MHz are usu- 
ally in the 0,01 and 0,1 jiH range. However, 
the PC board is compact, and parts are very 
small, A small soldering iron with a pointed 



imj^ 




hi-miUHf 


tOS'ifOW^j 


1 1 


«i0-5OOH»U 




01 

1TJ14. QiC 




02 






r P 




04 




OS 

AMPLIFIER 


A ^'l 






I"l_" 




























t 



Km* 



D>T1* 



^raHp 



AUDIO 



^1 AUQIQ INPUT 
lOmV to ' vOLf t(^ 
HL-Z 







t 



ZOltW 



suae: Aiq Rim 



viseo 

CAIN 



js Video inpvt 
05-fciv p-p 

KEG gvHc; HI -I 






010,011 



1 



LlHEAfHTf 
3 POINT 



Q\2 

tflEEO 

MCltlUi,fl|-TOfl 



40A 



VLDDD 
IIOQllLATfD 

4-9V 



-k- 



-^ *-fV 



Figure L Video transmitter block diagram. 



22 73 Amateur Radio Today * August 1 992 



& 



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24 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 




CTviKi 



4* * J U tt '*H^ 



•be '^«!^«C^ 



Figure 2. Schematic diagram of the I -watt, 9-volt ATV tratismitier. 



tip is recommended, especially for soldering 
in the chip capacitors. 

A discussion of precautions at VHF-UHF 
also appears in our February 1986 Radio 
Electroniis ariicle, "Build this Wireless 
Video Link/' Anyone interested in building 
tMs project may fimi this article very infor- 
mative. 

Circuit Overview 

The transmitter board's 1-watt level ts capa- 
ble of several miles of transmission range and 
those intending to use this design must do m 
under appropriate legal circumstances and 
suitable ticeming: this means you must have at 
{east a Technician class amateur radio license. 



The transmitter is illustrated in block dia- 
gram form in Figure 1, Twelve transistors 
are employed and a 9- vol I supply such as 
NiCds, an IC regulator, or AC -ope rated sup- 
ply is assumed. Ql is a crystal osciJlaior op- 
erating at one-eighth (1/8) of the picture car- 
rier frequency. It is operated between 52.5 
and 56,25 MHz with the circuit constants 
shown in Figure 2. This corresponds to a 
420 to 450 MHz output frequency, which 
covers 430 MHz ham TV With modification 
of circuit constants, higher or lower frequen- 
cies are possible, with reduced performance 
above 500 MHz and possibly somewhat en- 
hanced pcrfomiance below 420 MHz (more 
RF outpui), depending on the particular iran- 



OPTIONAL 

0.5 TO K5mH 

COILS AS SHOWN 

MAY BE USED FOR 

FREQ ADJUSTMENT 

THEY MAY BE 

OMITTED IF NOT 

REQUIRED Lx Y z 



SP SWITCH 
N POSITIONS 




XTAL 




m 



CAUTION -KEEP ALL LEADS VERY SHORT 



Figure 3. Scheme for XTAL SHiiching. 




ELIMINATE 

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sistors yscd. (This choice is left to you.) 

Q2 is driven by the output ofQl (about 2- 
5 milli wails) and acts as a doubler. Q2 feeds 
Q3 with a signal twice the frequency of ihe 
crystal. Q3 doubles the frequency to four 
times crystal frequency, typically 210 to 225 
Mil/-- Double-iuned interstage networks ane 
used to suppress unwanted harmonics. Q4 
doubles the output frequency of Q3 to the fi- 
nal output frequency. About five milliwatts 
of RF power are available- Q5 is an amplifi- 
er tuned lo the output frequency. Its function 
is to amplify the signal ai the output fre- 
quency present at the output of 04. About 
30-50 milliwatts of RF power is developed 
by Q5. Q6 and Q7 form a power amplifier. 
The power amplifier employs high gain RF 
semiconductors, and matching networks are 
adjustable for optimum tune-up. A fixed 
tuned strip-line design was contemplated, 
but at 420 MHz it would have occupied too 
much PC board area to comfonably fit on a 
2-1/2" X 4" PC board- Use of broadband 
chokes and surface mount (chip) capacitors, 
and careful design to avoid possible low fre* 
qucncy spurious oscillation problems, have 
resuhed in a very stable, efficient, repro- 
ducible circuit and you shouldn't encounter 
any UHF "horrors" if the design is repro- 
duced cxacdy as shown, using the specified 
components. 

Audio input ai 11 from 10 millivolts (mi- 
crophone) to 1 volt (line inputs, etc.) is fed 
to audio amplifier Q8. A level control is pro- 
vided for optimum modulation adjustment, 
Tlie audio modulates VCO circuit (}9» which 
produces a 4.5 MHz FM signal. This is ihe 
sound subcarrier. If is fed to video amplifier 
QIO where it is combined with the input 
video signal from J3, The video input may 
be 0.5 to 1.5 volts p-p, negative synch. QIO 
and Ql 1 form a video ampUfier which feeds 
modulator Q 1 2. Q 1 2 is capable of producing 
a video signal which has to +12V level 
swing, and can drive a load up to 1 am|>crc. 

26 73 Amateur Radio Today * August, 1 992 



Figure 4. Coil constructioiu 

Bandwidth at -3 dB is in excess of 10 MHz, 
assuring crisp picture detail. Q12 acts as a 
power supply to Q6 and Q7, effectively AM 
modulating the RF power output. A linearity 
control adjusts the operating point of Q12 
for opiimum modulation linearity. The Q 
point must be properly set, otherwise clip* 
ping of the video signal will occur. This will 
produce ''burned*out" picture highlights 
(white areas) with loss of detail, and/or 
synch "buzz*' in the audio, as well as loss of 
picture stability in extreme cases. 

In ATV practice, sometimes the 4.5 MHz 
subcarricT is not used, but a separate "talk 
back" channel on the 2 meter amateur band 
is used instead for audio and/or liaison pur- 
poses. If you don*t want the 4.5 MHz sound 
subcarricr, simply leave out Q8, Q9 and all 
VCO/audio components. Tliis won't affect 
video peformance in any way and^ in fact, 
can simplify things somewhat, since synch 
buzz problems will be much less likely with 
a separate sound transmitter, and video per- 
formance can be optimized without allowing 
for audio perforniance* However, the audio 
section of this transmitter is perfectly ade- 
quate for most amateur applications. 

Circuit Description 

Refer to Figure 2. Crystal oscillator QL a 

2N3563 VHF NPN transistor, is biased to 
hiitially 7 volts and 5 milli amperes Q point 
by resistor RU R2, and R3. Crystal CR! acts 
as a series resonant **bypass" to ground only 
at Ihe crystal series resonant frequency (52.5 
to 56.25). At this frequency, Ql acts as a 
common-base amplifier. Tuned circuit LI 
and C2, in series with C5, together with 
stray capacitance of aboui 1 to 2 pF, form a 
load for ihe collector of Ql. C3 and C4 by- 
pass the "cold" end of LI solidly to ground 
for AC signals. Internal feedback from col- 
lector to emitter occurs in Ql via the intrin- 
sic collector*to*emitler capacitance of Ql 
about 2 pF. CL a 56 pF capacitor, forms a 



voltage divider to feed back a portion of col- 
lector signal to the emitter. Note that CI is 
not an emitter bvpass but a pan of the feed- 
back network of oscillator QL Therefore, at 
the series resonant (crystal) frequency of 
CR1, Ql acts as a grounded base oscillaton 
An RF signal is generated at this frequency, 
DC is supplied to the Ql stage through de- 
coupling resistor R4. Collector current, once 
Ql starts to oscillate, is dependent on the 
tuning of LI, but typically is 5-10 mil- 
liampercs* If two or more frequencies are 
desired, a switch can be installed (Figure 3), 
however, some tuning compromises may be 
needed if the output frequencies arc more 
than 5 MHz apart. A portion of this voltage 
(about 1 .5 volts RMS) across LI is fed to Q2 
by the voltage division between C2 and C5. 
C5, an 82 pF capacitor, has a low impedance 
at twice the oscillator frequency. Q2 is bi- 
ased initially the same as Ql via R3, R6 and 
R7. C6 is a bypass capacitor, as are C7 and 
C8. Q2 acts as a frequency doubler by the 
fact that a lai^ge drive signal from Ql caus^ 
rectification in the emitter base junction of 
Q2. This produces appreciable harmonic 
generation. Keeping the impedance low in 
the E-B circuit of Q2 by using a large value 
(82 pF) for C5 results in efficient harmonic 
generation. 

C7 and L2 are mned to normally twice the 
crystal frequency. R9 supplies E>C to Q2 
stage. Tuning is accomplished via a slug in 
L2. CIO couples RF energy at 2X crystal 
frequency to a second tuned circuit, L3-CI 1- 
Ci2, also tuned to twice crystal frequency. 
Use of two tuned circuits assumes good se- 
lectivity and improved rejection of unwant- 
ed frequencies, This is important for a clean 
signal from the transmitter, R8, in the collec- 
tor of Q2, suppresses a tendency to unwant- 
ed UHF parasitic oscillation. Q3 is fed ener- 
gy at 105 to 1 12.5 MHz from the junction of 
Cll and CI 2, RIO, RIL and RI2 bias Q3. 
Since the RF level at the base orQ3 is high^ 



the RF level affects the bias. Typically, Q3 
runs at 15 to 20 mtlliamps coUecior current, 
Q3 is an MPS 3866, a 400 MHz medium 
power (1-watt dissipation) plastic trdnsiston 
It offers superior performance at 250 MHz 
to the 2N3563 used at Ql and Q2. Except 
for frequency, operation is similar lo the Q2 
stage, Q3 doubles the input frequency to 210 
to 225 MHz. R13 suppresses UHF (>300 
MHz) possibly parasitic oscillation- C15 and 
L4 arc tuned to twice the input frequency* 
CI 4 is a 470 pF bypass capacitor. The 0.01 
^F used in Ql and Q2 is ineffective at 250 
MHz and not used here, the 470 pF being 
sufficient. R14 feeds DC to Q3 stage. Note 
that now the output-tuned circuit is tuned by 
variable capacitor C15 and L4 is fixed. This 
is because slug tuning is no longer practical, 
the coil L4 having too few turns, CI 6 cou- 
ples energy to tuned circuit CI 7, L5, and 
CIS. This forms a double-tuned circuit at 
210-225 MHz. CI 7 is the tuning capacitor. 
CIS is a variable capacitor lo optimize 
matching into Q4, the last (third) doublen 
R15, a 330 ohm resistor, with a ferrite bead 
to act as an RF impedance (see Figure 5) in 
series with it, completes the base circuit DC 
path for Q4. Bias now is supplied encircly by 
the drive signal No extra DC bias is applied. 
The emitter of Q4 is directly grounded, since 
bypassing of emitter circuits at 420-500 
MHz is difficult without some loss of RF 
gain. However, a low^ value of R15 keeps 
DC stability adequate. 

C19 and L6 (a short length of wire is all 
that is needed) form a tuned circuit at 440 
MHz, C19 and C20 provide low frequency 
(video) and RF bypassing. CI 9 provides lit- 
tle bypassing at UHE Its purpose is to kill 
stray low frequency gain of the Q4 stage. 
C20 is a chip capacitor, the only type effec- 
tive at 440 MHz, It provides a solid RF 
ground for the cold end of L6. The 440 MHz 
signal at the collector of Q4 is fed to tuned 
circuit C21 and L7 via C32. C21 and L7 
match the low base impedance of Q5 to the 
collector circuit of Q4 and form a double- 
tuned UHF circuit together with C19 and 
L6, R17 and the ferrite bead provide a low 
DC impedance but a high RF impedance to 
the base of amplifier Q5. Q5 amplifies the 
UHF signal to about 30 milliwatts. L8 acts 
as an RF choke. C22 and C23 perform by- 
passing for video and UHF respectively. 
C24, a 470 pF chip, couples RF output but 
blocks DC from tuned circuit €25 and L9. 
L9 acts as a matching inductor to the base of 
driver transistor Q6. Q5 is fed straight, un- 
modulated +9 volts DC. Q6 receives the 
drive from Q5. R19 and the ferrite bead on 
one lead of it provide high RF impedance 
and low DC resistance to the base of Q6. 
Since a ferrite bead looks more like a high 
resistance ratlier than a reactance at high fre- 
quencies, the effective Q is very low. This 
prevents the possibility of parasitic oscilla- 
tions that could occur if a conventional type 
solenoid wound RF choke were to be used. 

C27, LU, and chip capacitors C28 and 
C29 match the collector impedance of Q6 
and Q7. LIO is a ferrite l:»ead choke made 




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73 AmatBur Radio Today • August, 1 992 27 



with three turns of wire wound through a 
ferrite bead, in toroidal fashion (see Figure 
4), This results in 3 V€i7 low Q, resistive 

impedance (about 1,000 ohms) and again 
avoids possible parasitics. C26 is a coupling 
capacitor, a chip 10 minimize stray induc- 
tance. C30 is a bypass capacitor chosen to 
provide a shon circuit lo UHF while looking 
like a high impedance at 10 MHz or lower, 
so the video signal component of this power 
supply voltage (modulation) is relatively un- 
affected. R20 is a coupling resistor, Q6 
draws about 130 milliampcres current at 
modulation peaks (synch tips). It is an 
MRF559. The RF power level out of 06 is 
in the range of 100-150 mW so that Q7 has 
sufTicient drive to produce the 1 watt (PEP) 
nominal output. Q7, an MRF630, is similar 
to Q6 in its operation, R21 and the ferrite 
bead on one lead (sec Figure 5) allow low 
DC base circuit resistance with high RF 
impedance as for Q6, LI 2 is an RF choke 
exactly the same as LIO. L13 and C33 form 
the collector matching circuit, loeether with 
mica capacitor C34, to match the 50 ohm 
load impedance to the optimum collector 
load iinpedance needed by Q7. Nate that a 
50 ohm load mitsr always he present at J2. 
Oiherwise, Q7 may be damaged, A tolerance 
of +/- 50% (25 to 100 ohm) is permissible 
here. However^ optimum performance is ob- 
tained with a 50 ohm load. 

Suitable 50 ohm coax must be connected 
from C34 (on the PC board) to Kl. with 
short connections (1/4" or less). Any lengfli 
of coax can be used, but for best results, 
keep ihe coax short. We used RG 174AJ PVC 
type but a type such as Teflon'^ coax 
(RG188/U) would be better From J2, stan- 
dard coax (RG58/U, etcj will do. Remem* 
ber, feedline loss can be very high at 420 
MHz and up. Preferably, connect the coax, 
with near zero lead length* to the bottom 
side of the PC board, very close to C34. Sol- 
der the shield directly to the ground foil, as 
close to the pad connecting C34 as possible, 
C31 is an RF bypass. Q6 and Q? arc fed 
video-modulated 9 volts from 012, which 
will be discu^ed later. 

Input Video from J3 (std, IV p-p negative 
synch, etc.) is fed through C43 to clamp 
diode D3. Note that C43 is apparently incor- 
rectly polarized. Hiis is to allow for certain 
video equipment that may have a DC com- 
ponent of up to 16 volts present on the video 
ouipul. If you do not expect to encounter 
this, you can reverse the polarity of C43, if 
you wish. The low reverse voltage (0.6 voil) 
appearing across it doesn't do any harm. D3 
clamps the maximum negative input level lo 
-0.7 volts and avoids serious overmodulation 
at synch tip leveL If you wish, you can E)C 
couple from J3 directly into R32, the video 
gain control, if your interfaces permit. Also, 
note optional S2 ohm termination resistor 
R32A. This resistor can be used if you want 
the transmitter video input to tie a line termi- 
nation (the usual case}. Use it unless you are 
in a situation where loop-lhrough {several 
other video loads in parallel) is required 

R32 acts as a video gain controL Video 




* I 



Cof! 



from R32 is fed lo the 
base of video amplifier 
Qll. The collector of 
QIO is fed by current 
source transistor QIO* 
QIO is biased to about 
50 milliampcres collec- 
tor current by R34, R35, 
and R36. This permits 
the collector of Q1 1 to 
supply plenty of drive to 
modulate Q12 and elimi- 
nate ihe need for a low 
value resistor collector 
of Q1 1 to the power sup- 
ply rail (+9V). This en- 
ables the base of Q12 to 
nearly approach the +9V 
supply level and allows a 
higher positive swing of 
the emitter of Q 1 2 than a 
resistor from Qll to 
+9V would permit, due 
to the base drive needs 
ofQll Ql2anMJE180 
is configured as an emit- 
ter follower. It must sup- 
ply all the current to Q6, 
Q7, tor Q5) and must 
provide a very low sup- 
ply impedance and very 
high slew rate. The low 
impedance is necessary 
for both full RF power 
output and control of 
parasitic oscillation ten- 
dencies in the Q6 and 
Q7 amplifier circuitry. 
Also, the load is capaci- 
tivc, due to the bypass- 
ing from C30, C31, and 
a!.so from C26. The Ql 2 circuit, in tests, can 
supply nearly 12 volts of video into a 10 
ohm load with a +12V supply. (This is L2 
amperes of current.) Q12 must be heat- 
sinked. R37 provides feedback around the 
modulator to establish both Q point, video 
gain, and bandwidth. R33 sets the exact Q 
point (voltage seen at point A. the emitter of 
Q12), under zero drive conditions alx>ut 4 to 
5 volts DC to Q6 and Q7, R33 is adjusted 
for maximum undistorted symmetrical video 
at point A, while R32 controls video drive to 
QIL Supply bypassing must be effective at 
the collector of Q12 due to the high current, 
fast waveforms handled. A 10 jiF 15V chip 
tamalum was used; conventional elecirolyt- 
ics were found to be somewhat less effective 
al C44, the main supply bypass capacitor. A 
diode D4, a 1N4007, is provided to serve as 
reverse polarity protection. Connect it di- 
rectly across the +9V line to the transmitter 
board. It can l>c omitted if there is no possi- 
bility of supply reversal, and you arc perfect 
and never make mistakes. Audio is fed to 
gain control R22 from jack J3. Input level is 
between 10 millivolts to 1 volt at high 
impedance, allowing direct interfacing with 
most microphones or other audio sources. 
Audio from R22 is fed through coupling ca- 
pacitor C35 to Q8, a 2N3565. Q8 is bfased 



RESISTOR R(&,RI7, Ri9 OR R2I 



V FERRITE 
BEAD 





BASE OF 
04,5 
S OR 7 



ni 



PC BOARD 



T^ 



DETAIL 

FERRITE BEAD PLACEMENT 
RI5, Ri7, Rt9 AND R2i 



Figure 5. Using an RF choke on resistor leads. 



Table 1- Coil Winding Data 



Description 

(# TujtiSt Length) 



Form 



Notes 



LI 


9-1/2 turns #22EN 


B-22 screw 


Slug reqd. 


12 


3-1/2 lyms#22£N 


B-32 screw 


Slug reqd. 


L3 


4-1/2 turns #22EN 


8-32 screw 


Slug reqd. 


L4 


3 turns #22 tinned 


#27 drill 


1/4" long 


L5 


4 turns #22 tinned 


#27 drill 


1/4" long 


L7 


M/2 turns #22 tinned 


#27 drill 


1/16" long 


L8 


2-1/2 turns #22 tinned 


#27 drill 


3/16" long 


L6.L9,L11,L13 


Less than 1 turn 


PC board 


Per Figure 4 


L10,L12 


Bead choice, #32 EN 


Ferrite bead 


Per Figure 4 


L14 


8 turns ^22 on 




NTSC 4,5 MHz 




768TlB8t0f0id 


TofDkiaJ 


Sound 






Core 






6 turns n22 on 


PAL 3,5 MHz 




768T18S Toroid 




Soumi 



Noia: AO coit£ may r^uire pius at mmus a tym due lo nomiat variation and construe^ 
tiofi. {This IS to l3C expected) Du€ to ir«Jiv»dual toEerances, construdioci lechniqiies 
Li itirough L3 may r^uirB plu¥ Ch' rtiiinu$ Ofie turn. This may t>e tw& of LI 4^ L4, 5. 6 
and 7 may have lo he spread or squeofed lengthwise. Dimenstons shown ^re from 
an average ot five units and yours therefore can vary lo some degree. 



from R25. R24, and R23. C36 is a bypass 
capacilor to prevent audio degenerative 
feedbiack and loss of gain. Collector load re- 
sistor R26 supplies DC to Q8. C37 couples 
audio to R27, and blocks DC Note that no 
pre-emphasis (the providing of high fre- 
quency boost) has been used If you want to 
use iu for belter high frequency audio re* 
sponsc change C37 to 0.00 1 M^ and set the 
gain control R22 up higher lo compensate 
for loss. We found we did not need it in our 
application, the audio being adequate. R27 
couples audio to varacior diode D2, an 
MV21 12 or MV2113. R29 provides DC bias 
of +5V to the varactor. Ilie varacior diode 
varies the capacitance of D2 (56 pF at 4 
volis, about 50 pF ai 5 volts bias) at an audio 
rate. The capacitance of D2 appears across 
the 4.5 MHz oscillator coil, L14, Q9. an 
MPF102 FET, together with capacitors C41, 
C42, C40. and L 14 form a Colpitts t>T3e RF 
oscillator operating at 4.5 MHz. C40 is a 
irimmer (variable) capacilor to set ihe fre- 
quency 10 exactly 4.5 MHz, L14 is a toroidal 
coil to minimize both size and stray magnet* 
ic field generaiion. C46 provides RF 
grounding for D2 while blocking audio. 

When D2 changes capacitance, the oscil- 
lator frequency shifts. Therefore, an audio 
voltage component on DC causes a frequen- 



28 73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1 992 



Parts List 



nesislors:1/l8or1/tOW 



P/H 


Value 


m,RS,R38.B39.B30 


2.2k ohm 


R2.R6.R11.R27 


10k {}hm 


m 


t50ohm 


B4.R7.naRT2,RU. 




H17,R19,R35 


lOOotvn 


RaRta 


n^ofni 


RtO.R36 


680otwn 


ft! 5 


aaooTnt 


Rie 


=*7olim 


Ria 


33 ohm 


R20 


lOohm 1/4W 


RZl 


2Zohfn 


R22 


rOOkpot 


R23 


22k ohm 


R24.RS9 


100k ohm 


R26.B31 


4.7k ohm 


1^7 


lOkohm 


R2S 


330 ohm U4W 


R32.R33 


Ik ohm pot 


R34 


ISotim 


R37 


3.3k ohm 


R40 


62 ohm 1/4W 



Capacttor 

CI 

C2,C12 

C3,C7.Cl9.C22,C3a 

C4.G6.Ce.Cl3.Cl4 

CS 

C$,C11 

C10 

C15.C17.C19.C21, 

C25,C27.C33 
C16,C32 
C!8 

C20.C23.C24.C45 
C26,C30.C31 
C28,C29 
C34 

C35.C36.C37 
C39 
C40 
C41 
C42 
C43 
C44 

C4e 



Type 

56 pF NPO 
33pFNPO 
0.01 |iF disc 
470 jjF disc 
82 pF 
15 pF 
2.2 pF 

2-lOpFtnmmef 

1 pF NPO 

2* 1 8 pF trimmer 

470 pF chip 

100 pF chip 

2-2 pFchip 

SpFmica 

1 ^F435 or 50V) electrolylie 

1 ^/f 6V electrolytic 

3-40 pF trimm^ 

220 pF NPO 

470 pF NPO 

470 uF/i6V eieoTToiytic 

10 uF/lSV chip tantalum 

100|*FNPO 

2N3563 trsisistor 



Q3,04,05 

06 

Q7 

oa 

09 
Q10 
Q11 
QI2 

02 

m 
m 

Jnductors; 
LI -LI 4 



MPS3S66 transistor 
MnF559 transtsior 
MRF630tr3nscslor 
2N3S65 imnsistOf 
MPFt02trarisEStor 
2N39€6 transiscof 
2N3d(M transisTDT 
MJEiSDtransistpr 
lN757^iode 
MV2 112 vafactor diode 
1N914<$ode 
ir44007dnde 

Se^ the Co(i Tabie 

Wscellaneoyi 

llQflllid 767100 

6 femte beads 

3 bJiiQ slogs (Cambiofi}i 

1 PC board 

1 T0220 insylator 

1 4-40 screw, nut, lockwashef 

1 3-32 screw 1" (for windiing of cOilS) 

2 ft- »22 enameled wire 
2 ft. #22 linned vvire 

2 ft. #32 ©name led wing 
1 crystal 52.5 - 55 MHz 

Note 1! Kits consisting of the PC board and a// parts thiat 
mount on the board, including ell necessary wire, ar^ avail- 
able from North Country Radio RO. Bok S3H. Wykagyl Sta- 
tion. New RocheNe NV 10004. Ttio l-watt ATV transmitter 
kJi if crystal for 439.25 MHz is fivailabfie for Si 12 -h S3.50 
postage/handling , Crystals for 434.0. 426.25 or 421.25" 
MHz are an additional S7 50 each. A 12-volt version of the 
ATV transmitter capable of a 2 watt output (similar in design 
to the 9^oit version - see the Juneyjuiy "89 issues of Radio 
Electmnics fof details) is available for SitO + S3. 50 p^ with 
ATV crystal. A metaf case (S-1/2" x 3" x t 1/41 suitable for 
the S-voU or ia-volt versions of the transmiiief complete 
wi&\ one powef. one 6NC and two RCA connectors is also 
avatlabte for an addittonaJ S15 To hetp you assemble a 
complete ATV station, two othei items are also avaiiaWe: 
an ATV inear ajmplfier to boost your outpiit power to 10 
wans for 579,50 + 53.50 pti (induaos case, beat sinhL and 
li canneaors arKJ t\afdwmre) and a tow noise t1 -^ ^ typt- 
cat) ATV doivficonvefter kn to enable rccepnon of ATV sig- 
rmis using a standard TV set for S^ 50 + $3-50 p^ 

"NOTE 2; Operation on 421 25 MHz requires use of a VSB 
(VestigiaF Sideband) fitter (not avaiat^le from North Count/y 
Radio but suppned by others) to prevent LSB coon portents 
from being radiated oLrtstde of the band limits. 



cy modulation (FM) of the 4,5 MHz signal 
generated in the Q9 circuit. R30 provides 
operating bias for Q9, Resislor R31, a 151c 
ohm resistor, couples this sound subcarrier 
t4,5 MHz FM signal) into the video amplifi- 
er, which modulates it onto the RF signal 
along with the video* 

R28« zencr diode Dl, and bypass capaci- 
tors C38 and C39 supply a regulated +5.1 
volt nominal DC voltage to Q9 and varactor 
Dl . The regulation reduces or eliminates os- 
cillator drift if the supply voltage were to 
vary. A frequency counter can be connected 
to point A to set C40 to exactly the value 
needed for 4.5 MHz sound subcarrier fre- 
quency. 

If PAL operation is contcmplaicd, simply 
modify L14 as described in the Table. The 
audio circuit has sufficient drive for the de- 
viation required. Simply replace the 4,5 
MHz mentioned in this text with 5.5 MHz, as 
applicable. 

Stay Tdned 

Next month in Part TI, we'll go over the 
final construction of the ATV transmitter PC 
board and tune-up of the circuit. 



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CfReiE 123 QH REA0ER 



7 on your Feedback card 



The Explorer 

HF receiver for 40 and 80 meters 



by Paul G, Daulton K5WMS 



Here is a unique application for the Sig- 
neiics TDA7000 FM Receiver chip: as 
a two-band, 80 and 40 meter, CW and SSB 
receiver. How, you are asking, do you re- 
ceive CW and SSB on an FM system? 1 only 
used the oscilhuor and mixer sections as an 
on-frequency product detcclor or direct con- 
version receiver. Performance exceeds cxisl- 
tng designs using the NE602, There is no kit 
available for this receiver, but sufficient in- 
formation is given in this anicle lo duplicate 
what r have done or to design your own re* 
ceiver. 

NE-602 Designs 

Direct conversion receivers using the Sig- 
netics NE-602 IC chips have made quite a 
stir with home builders in the last three or 
four years. Basically a double-balanced mix- 
er with an on-boaid oscillator and associated 
regulator components, the NE-602 in combi- 
nation with a 50 or 250 mW audio amplifier 
makes an excellent direct conversion receiv- 
er with only a minimum of support compo- 
nents. I have built two of the Neophyte re- 
ceivers (QST, February 198 H), the Ramsey 
HR-8080 kit, and a couple of home-brew de- 
signs. The Sudden Receiver in the October 
1991 73 Magazine is another fine example of 
an NE602 application. 

Direct conversion receivers using ihe 
NE602 and LM386 do have a couple of 
drawbacks. The worst is lack of dynamic 
range* Most designs provide for an attenua- 
tor pot on the input. The operator must con- 
stantly ride the gain, say when listening to a 
round table on 75 meters when the stronger 
signals drive the 602 into distortion. Second, 
the NE602 with an LM386 audio output 
stage has insufficient volume to drive a 
speaker to a comfonable listening levcL The 
NE602 has a maximimi voltage rating of 8 
volts. 

The TDA7000 Advantage 

Tlie TDA7000 operates at 12 volts. This, 
in combination with an LM386 output stage, 
has plenty of audio to drive a 3" or 4'* speak- 
er. Front-end overload is not a problem. The 
TDA7000 was designed as a receiver front 
end for cordless phones, Walkman radios, 
and the like. The NE602, on the other hand, 
was designed as a second IF for cellular 
phones where ii operates in a more steady - 
state condition. 

Just by coincidence I noticed the similari- 




Photo A, Final version of ihe Explorer HF 

receiver wiih the cover removed. 

ty of the NE602 to the TDA7000. The 
TDA7000 is an 18-pin dip with a mixer, an 
oscillator, and two op amps for audio fre- 
quency (70 kHz) IF stages, muting, and FM 
detector stages. ! built the first prototype on 
a Radio Shack experimenter's socket, using 
only the oscillator and mixer of the 
TDA7000* For audio I used a Radio Shack 
mini-amplifier speaker. Coils were wound 
for 80 meters on 1" sections of the barrel of 
a BIC pen. This only took about 20 minutes 
to throw together. Performance of the first 
prototype was so good 1 quickly (in 45 min- 
utes) transferred the parts to a perfboard, 
adding a VFO coil for 40 meters. All this 
took place between 10 p.m. and midnighi on 
a Saturday night. 

Performance of the prototv-pe TDA7000 
receiver was better than the other direct con- 
version receivers I have built using the 
NE602, I was particularly interested in de- 
veloping a design that could be given to the 
local Explorer Scouts* something that the 
youngsters could build even if they had to 
buy the parts one piece at a time. As a result, 
Fve tried 10 specify parts Ihat are available 
at a local Radio Shack store. 

The only parts in this design not available 



V 



ssevcw 



PETECTOR 



auDpQ 




^ 



SPEARtH 



VFO 



Figure I. Diagram of fhe basic direct con^ 
version receiver. 



at Radio Shack stores are the TDA7000. the 
varicap diode, and the vernier dial drive. Al- 
though Radio Shack used lo carry the 
TDA7000 IC, they discontinued carrying it 
while 1 was designing this circuit. However, 
DC Electronics, phone no: (800) 423-a>70, 
in Scoltsdalc, Arizona, lists this device for 
$5,95 in their recent catalog. This is about $3 
more than the NE602. but the extra cost is 
more than offset by the increased perform- 
ance and circuit simplicily. The varicap 
diode is an ECG replacement and can be or- 
dered through most Radio Shack stores, or 
with a change in layout a 365 pF air variable 
could be used in its place. The dial drive and 
tuning cap are a matter of builder's choice. I 
suggest a sturdy double -bearing capacitor for 
the VFO tuning cap. This could be salvaged 
from an old lube-iype AM radio. An alter- 
nate for the tuning cap using the 440 pF 
ECG618 varicap and a potentiometer is 
shown on the schematic diagram. 

Construction 

The final version presented here was built 

in a RS# 270-274 cabinet with dimensions of 
3-1/16" X 8^1/4'^ X 6-1/8". This is the mini- 
mum size I would recommend for a small re- 
ceiver of this sort. You need panel space for 
a reasonable size dial and room to operate 
the controls. The main tuning dial is a 
vernier drive of unknown origin, with a brass 
wire for a pointer, A 3" x 5" ftle card was cut 
dowTi and lettered for the scale. This is held 
in place with vinyl tape, I tried to duplicate 
the look of the old National MCN dial as- 
sembly that was so popular back in the *50s 
and '60s. Dry transfer letters were used on 
the panel, with an overs pray of clear acrylic 
aerosol. The speaker grill is a piece of mate- 
rial called plastic canvas, available at most 
discount retail and craft stores. A word of 
caution is in order if you plan lo mount the 
speaker in the Radio Shack cabinet. Find an 
electrician with a hydraulic operated knock- 
out punch to make the hole. This cabinet is 
made of a very lough, thin» spring steeL 1 ru- 
ined a fly cutler and a hole saw trying to 
make the hole for the speaker. Either punch a 
large hole or drill a grid of small holes for 
the speaker, 

I used a 3" x 4" piece of copper-clad phe- 
nolic, glued to the bottom of the cabinet, 
copper face up, to mount the components 
and terminal strips. All ground connections 
are made to the copper foil. IC sockets were 



30 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 




V 



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73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1992 31 



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Figure 2. Schematic diagram afihe Explorer 80 and 40 meter receiver. 



soldered to RS part no, 276- 159 A IC cxperi- 
menier's boards. Note from the piciures thai 
this board is lumed tipsidc down for easy ac- 
cess to the solder lerminals, and mounted on 

stand-off bushings. You could also glue this 
to Ihe copper foil with a piece of insulating 
material between the board and the foil to 
prevent shorts caused by solder leaking 
through the holes. This type of construction 
was popularized by Bill Hoisington KICLL 
back in the l96Cs in many 73 Magazine arti- 
cles. 

Solid conductor wire was used for point- 
to-point wiring. Twisted pairs were used on 
the leads going to the audio gain control to 
eliminate hum, Bandswitching is accom- 
plished by ^switching only the VFO coils. 
The two-terminal oscillator circuit of the 
TDA7000 simplifies this, A varactor diode 
tunes the antenna coil to the desired band. 




Photo B- Top view ofTDAJOOO receiver board (left} and the 
audio amplifier board (right). Antenna coil is shown in the 
upper left and the VFO coils are shown in the lower left. All 
sockets and components are mourned on the copper foil 
side of the prototype hoard (availahie from Radio Slmck). 
The extra fC socket on the audio hoard isforfiiture expan- 
sion. 



With the values shown, this coil will tune 
from 3 to 11 MHz. It would be very simple 
to add 30 meters to this receiver with the ap- 
propriate coil and capacitor values in the 
VFO section. Both 50 ohm link coupling 
and a high impedance input arc provided on 
the receiver input. 1 originally intended to 
build an active antenna stage into this re- 
ceiver, but I found this was not necessary. It 
will perform amazingly well with a 3" to 15" 
piece of wire connected to the Hi-Z input. 

Coils 

I wound my coils on plastic tubing pur* 
chased at a local hobby shop, Glue or tape 
the first turn down, wind the coil with a cou- 
ple of extra turns, and coat the coil with 
clear fmgemail polish. It may seem strange 
not to have any adjustment on the coils or 
trimmer capacitors for calibration^ but once 
you have the VFO in operation 
it only takes a few minutes to 
adjust the tuning range by peel- 
ing one turn at a time off the 
coils or soldering fixed values 
of capacitance to raise and low- 
er the tuning range. Lowering 
the inductance by peeling off 
turns raises the frequency and 
increases the range of band* 
spread from minimum to maxi- 
mum capacity of the VFO ca- 
pacitor. Adding capacity in par- 
allel to the VFO coil produces 
the opposite effect* I made the 
dial scale to match what I 
wound up with. 1 mounted the 
coils vertically by gluing the 
ends to ihc copper-clad surface 
with Super-Glue. 



Audio 
If you want you can omit the 



LM386 audio stage and purchase a mini- 
amplifier speaker, RS part no* 277-1008. or 
use whatever audio amp you have available, 
I used one of the op amp IF stages in Ihe 
TDA7000 for audio selectivity, then later 
both op amps (see Figure 3), The first is a 
Salien-Key low-pass filter with a cutoff fre- 
quency of 2000 Hz* The second op amp is a 
bandpass filter. Components were selected 
to give a bandpass of 300 to 2500 Hz for 
SSB reception. Fonnulas for using the op 
amp IF filters are available from Signetics. 
Radio Shack included an application data 
sheet with their TDA7000, This data is 
available in the 1988 Archer semiconductor 
application manual. I would suggest you 
build the receiver as shown in the main 
schematic before proceeding with the audio 
filters. Dave N5KRN runs the output of his 
receiver into a Kenwood audio graphic 
equalizer and then to a 2 watt audio amp 
with a pair of large speakers. You have to 
hear this combination to believe the quality. 
[Ed.Note: use only CS if no filter is used, 
C8A for the low-pass filter or C8B for the 
bandpass filter.] 

Performance 

Mttiimum discernible signal as best as I 
can meastue is le^ than 0.2 microvolts. My 
ancient Measurements Model SO is not RF 
tight enough to measure this weak a signal. 
The figure of 0.2 microvolts was arrived at 
by "hardening" the generator output with a 
20 dB pad and scaling back to arrive at tte 
MDS of 0.2 microvolts. Stability is quite 
good. All caps used in the frequency-deter- 
mining circuits were NPO disk ceramic. Use 
polystyrene or silver mica types if you wish. 
For daytime operation I generally use a 
dipole antenna connected to the 50 ohm in- 
put. At night when signals are much stronger 
I use a random wire 3' to 15' in length con- 



32 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 



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34 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 



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AFIA 



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Parts List 


yi 


TDA7000 foccivenc 


U2 


LMgas audio amp4(f)ef IC 


oi 


^mm\ iKKte 


D2 


ECG6^@ vancap diode 


Rl 


100 onm fesistof 


fS 


10k potentiometer^ audio taper 




with switch 


R3 


100k ffisistor 


R4 


5k linear potentiometer 


R5 


4.7k resistor 


ctca 


£20 ^iF/aSV electrol/tic 




capacitor 


C3 


10 \if o^GCln^lytic capacdor 


04 


100 iiF electrolytic capacitO'r 


05 


1 TOO pF clisc ceramic 


C6.Ct9*. 


C23\C24' 


0.00 1 pF (i$c ceramk: 


G7.C8. 




G9.C20" 


0.1 |jF cIesc ceratnic 


C10.C11. 




C 1 2,C 1 3.C1 4 1 CO pF NPO disc ceramic | 


C15.C16 


220 pF NPO disc ceramic 


car 


0.01 ^iF disc ceramfc 


C22" 


00047 ^F disc csfamiq 


C17 


365 pF variable capacitor 


AitemativB to 365 pF variable: | 


R6 


100k resistor 


R7 


4.7k nssisler 


RS 


5k potentiometer 


C13,C14 


1O0 pF NPO disc ceramic 


D3 


£CG5ia varicap diode 


• Optional filler componenis 


An eiched and drilled PC board is available tor 


$4.50 + 1.50 


shippmg/liandltiiQ fix)m FAR Cir* 


cults. 18N640 Fiefd Court, Dundee IL 601 T8, The ! 


TDA7000 IS available for $5 95 rrom DC Elec- 


Ironfcs, RD.Bqx 3203, Scottsdale AZ 85271. 


Phone: (800) 423-0070 or (602) 945-7736. 



Figure 3. Schematic diagram for alternate 
attdio seieaivirv using the intertml op amps 
in the TDAlim. 




Figure 4, The optional PC board foil pattern. 



R2 ^Pri7 

C?lT0R2 



S3 




Figures. PC board parts placement. 



necied to ihe Hi-Z inpyi. This helps cut 
down Ihe trash and QRM. While experi- 
menting with this 1 have had the TDA7000 
operating from 160 to 15 mciers with good 

resutts. 

Have Tun with this 
project. As i Slated in the 
beginning, no kit is 
available, nor is any 
p!anncd.l£d'. Note: A PC 
board is available, see 
ihe parts list for details.] 
I drive an 1 8-wheeler for 
a living and 1 am gone 
three to five nights a 
week, so I don't have ihc 
lime to pursue a kit pro- 
ject. I wrote this anicle 
at the urging of some of 
my ham friends, because 
this application for the 
TDA70()0 is too good to 
sit on and not gel the 
word oui to other experi- 
menters, I hope thai this 
article will inspire some 
of the better builders to 
use the TDA7000 as I 
have done and develop a 
good kit on a PC board 
with premanufacturcd 
coils and such. If some- 
one does ril be one of 
the firsi to buy one! My 
thanks to Dave Burke 
N5KRN and Bill Allsop 
W5TJY for their help 
and encouragement in 
this project. 



TO m CT TO m a 



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r4umt>er S on your Feedback card 



Digital ALC 

A simple way to get the best out of any transmitten 



by Ed. C. Miller N7APE 



A lot of ham shacks have one or more 
good old transTnitlers or transceivers 
that lack aulomatic modulacion control. Here 
is a universal mike level unii that features 
the latest in digital audio control* It will 
work with almosl any transmiUGr/mike com- 
bination to provide consistent full modula- 
tion, over a range of up to 12 dB. It's the 
way to get the best performance from any 
Iransmiiier, without any internal wiring 
change. 

Because no one consistently talks at the 
same loudness, and/or at the same distance 
from the microphone, some form of auto- 
matic level control is almost a musL For 
anyone who has an oider rig and would like 
to make ihe best use of it, this outboard, 
mike-level Automatic Digital Level con- 
troller might be die answer. The ADLC is a 
new approach to automatic audio level con- 
trol. It represents a better way lo keep the 
peak modulation levels constant. 

The Circuit 

Most ALC circuits arc a variation of Fig- 
ure la or lb. Because an increase in the out- 
put of the variable-gain amplifier above a 
certain level reduces the amplifier *s gain, its 
output is reduced^ — not to the level just be- 
fore the "knee" is reached, but slightly more. 
Thus, the oulput level wall continue lo rise, 
if only about 1 dB, over a 10 dB range of in- 
put above the compression level If the mod- 
ulation is set at 85 percent, for example, the 
actual modulation perccniagc will generally 
increase to about 95 percent at 10 dB of 
compression. 

Other things that must be considered in 
such a circuit are the attack and release 
times of the gain control circuit. The attack 
lime, which must be very short to prevent 
any portion of the audio peaks from exceed- 
ing the preset limits, is primarily deter- 



IHPUT 




t 
WPUT 

LEVEL 
■NCREASEO 



Figure 2, Scope tracings. 



-c> 



v&FiidBLE mm 



aJ 



f*C NETWOfiK 



-o 



HECTiriER 



O- 



AMP 




■o 



RECTIFIER 



*/ 




FET 



He HETTWOnM 



I 



Figure la, lb. Block diagrams af standard 
ALC circuits. 



dio switches. These switches each control 
gain-reduction pads* in 3/4 dB increments, in 
and between the op-amp stages. 

Therefore, gain reduction of up to 12 dB 
is attained by reducing the audio output in 
3/4 dB steps, until that comparator becomes 
inactive. Tlie second comparator is active all 
the time the first comparator is aclive. When 
the audio output peaks drop below the sec- 
ond comparator's reference, and remain be- 
low it for about a second, the Up/Down in- 
put of the 4029 is switched to t>OWN and 
the 40936 slow counter is enabled and be- 
gins to increase the amplifier gain in 3/4 dB 
steps, at a relatively slow pace. Thus, the 
peak modulation is kepi within less than one 
dB of maximum over a 12 dB range, but 
does NOT TUMP' if the peak levels remain 
relatively constant. (If the modulation peaks 
are at 95% ai zero dB compression, they will 
also be 95% at over 10 dB of compression.) 

The scope tracings in Figure 4 show the 
input and output of the DALC- The initial in- 



ftUDlO 



irif 



OP^AMP 



75 

SW 



n 



J L 



409 }& 
GATES 



1 u 



mined by the value of C in the 
RC network, the oulput resistance 
of the amplifier, and the forward 
resistance of the rectifier. The re- 
lease time is determined primarily 
by the values of C and R. To get 
the desired fast attack and slow 
release, the reverse resistance of 
the rectifier and the input resis- 
tance of the amplifier become 
limiting factors. Also, both of 
these values become lower with 
an increase in temperature. And, 
as CI is discharged at a non-lin- 
ear rate, compromises must be 
made in the values of both C and 
R. 

The digital ALC circuit shoMOi 
in the block diagram of Figure 2, 
and schematically in Figure 3, 
overcomes these problems by us- 
ing two comparators: one to es- 
tablish the maximtim output, and 
another set of about 1/2 dB l>elow the first. 
Whenever the audio input level is sufficient 
to activate the first comparator, two things 
occur: The 4029 counter Up/Down input is 
switched to UP; and a high speed {300 kHx) 
pulse generator (one section of a 4093B) ac- 
tivates the clock inpul of the 4029* The 4029 
outputs (Ql, 02, Q3, and 04) enable indi- 
vidual sections of the quad bi-directional au- 



11— i r— tf— ii—n— ^ 



19 
dB 
SW 
PAD 



OP 'AMP 



6.0 

SW 
PAD 



OP' AMP 



3.0 

SW 

PAD 



OUTPUT 
OP-AMP 



40GG Oil AD AhlALOG SMirCH IC 



T 



Oi oj QA 43 



ira 



£ 



OP' AMP 



til 
05C 



LO 



1 



OUtP^T 
UMIT 



f?ECT|Fh£frt. 



L«-3OC0«P 



J 



JP 



REF 
VOLTAGES 



Oi/twr 



UED mDlCATOR 



Figure 3. Block diagram of the Digital ALC, 



put level is approximately -45 dBm. At the 
end of the first two cycles, the level is in* 
stantly increased by 10 dB. The lower (out- 
put) trace shows how quickly the first nega- 
tive peak is reduced as the amplifier gain is 
digitally changed. The next positive and 
negative |>eaks have minor gain adjustments 
thai effectively center the waveform. At the 
end of a cycle and a half, the oulput level 
and waveform are stabilized ai the level it 



36 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 




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CIRCLE 144 ON REAOEt SERVICE CARD 

73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1992 37 



Q>4 
■+♦■ 



mukR 






01 

MPFI02 



SO? 



W 



22OI1 



n 



68Clk 



Hi 




I 5^F 



iSta 



I 



J. 



Ul 



-SI 



m 



tODh 






R45 

I 21, 



R44 
330 






A 10 







R4e 

no* 



1 



CIS 
560iiF 









^n 



OUT 



Dl 

■ ■AM 



LM33aM 



/tj 



*ii*w 




i 



r 






f 



R4; 



;r4i 

2TI 




02 



■ 4 



4J2b 
LM35eN 




3 51 > 3; 



-^^ 

HIT 
lOh 



ffl? 



B?0 



: i.M3^H4 






^e 




36ti 






430 
27h^ 



LM35aA 



|i 



iO 



U4 



s 



13 



fl? 



I» 







R40 



1,4 



fi 



1^ 



n2« 



(W 



/77 







1^1 



LM3I9M 




RSI 



Di 



Q3 



U5 



CL 




G 



U 



Jl, 



10 



KU><IC 



U6 




L« 



<Dt; 






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U7 
CD4091B 



'KZt 



H39 
€aOL 



CIS 



^ 






03 

IN9I4 



CiZ 
<0.39iiF 



R36 
4. 7 II 



ue 




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R34 
12 h 



tLCiO 
4.7^F 



1^32 

Ih 



Figure 4. Schemaiic diagram of the digital ALC. 



was before the input level increase* 

The advantages of such a circuit include 
[al precise incremental control of the maxi- 
mum output (over a rajige of more than 3 to 
1): [b] recover}^ that is at a consistent rate; 
and [c] maximuni output level ihat remains 
constant over the compression range. 

The diagram of a prototype of Figure 2 is 
shown in Figure 3. As it was intended as a 
microphone preamp that could be used with 
any transmitter, it uses an FET preamp feed- 
ing one half of an LM'358 dual op amp. If 
the output level of the microptione is exces- 
sive, a resistor may be installed in So{2) to 
reduce the input level 10 the appropriate 
amouni. This is followed by two more sec- 
tions of LM-358S that include a switched L- 
Pad in the input, plus a switched negative- 
feedback pad in each amplifier. The last 
LM-358 section is used as an inverter, to 
provide both positive and negative peak dc- 
reciion for the comparators. 

The output of the third IC stage also pass- 
es through an RC audio filler, level reduc- 
tion network and output level control before 
being applied to the transmitter MIC input 
Included in this network, is an FET that au- 
tomatically reduces the audio output by 




Figure 5a. PC board foil pattern. 



30 73 Amateur Radio Tocfay • August, 1 992 



r\ (^ 



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HP Equipment 
IC-7B1 Xcvr/ps/tufter/scope 



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[C-765 Xcvr/ps/keyer/tuner. $2856.00 2348 




r ■ k I ■ rf-#'+ k I i ■ ■ i- 



IC-751A 9-bandxcvr/SWrx 

PS-SS Interrtai power supply. 

FL-63A 250 Hz CW filter (1st IF) ..„ 

FL-52A 500 Hz CW filter (2nd IF) ... 

FL-53A 250 Hz CW filter t2rKi IF).. 

Fb70 2,8 kHz wide SSB filter 
IC-735 HFxcvr/SWfCvr/mic 

PS-55 External power supply .... 

AM 50 Automatic antenna tuner 

FL-32A 500 Hz CW filler ,.... 

EX'243 Electron fckeyery nit 

UT-30 Tone encoder .^„. 



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AH-3 Automatic antenna tuner 488.33 429'^ 

IC-72B 10-bandxcvrw/Gm D 1283.00 1058 

IC-728 HF xcvr/SW rcvr/mic 1092.00 899^^ 

IC429 HF xcvr/SW rcvf w/6m 1412,00 11B8 

HF Accessories: Regular SALE 

IC-2KL HF solid state amp w/ps $2119,00 1768 

IC-4KL HFlkw amp w/ps ,7457.00 5998 

EX-B27 Automatic antenna selector .....314.67 279** 

PS-15 20A external power supply 213.00 189« 

PS-30 Systems p/s w/cord, 6 pin plug 37L00 320^^ 

SW-6 Desk micropt\on€ ,« 47.93 

SIA-8 Desk rtiic; two cables, scan 89.00 

AT-MO 500w 9 band auto ant tunef ..... 589.00 529* 

JW-2 8-band tuner w/mount & whip 780.00 689^ 

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1C-575A 25w 6/lOm xcvr/ps D 1455,00 

IC-&75H 25w 100w6/10m xcvr 1699.00 

IM275A IDw 1.2GHz FIVI/SSB/CW ....... 1924.00 



SALE 
12SB 

1498 

1158 
1398 

1598 




VHF/UHF FM Transceivers Regular SALE 

IC-28H 45w 2m fWTW mic „« $385,00 329^ 

IC-229A 25w 2m FM/TTP mic «».». 439,00 369^ 

IC-229H 50w 2m mm? mic .,. 439.00 363*^ 

IC^38A 25w 220 MHz FM xcvr .™„„ 439,00 369** 

li;-449A 35w 440FM xcvrmP 527.00 439*^ 

IC-1201 10wl.2GH?FM/SSB/CW.. 847.00 719^ 

Dual band FM Transceivers Reguiar SALE 

IC-24T0A 25w2m/440FMmPmic.. $859.00 729« 

IC-2410H 45w 2nij^5w 440 FM^TP 931.00 763^ 

IC-3220A 25w2ni/440FMmPmic .D 685.00 569== 

IC-3220H 45w2m/35w440FIVm?....D 727.00 58^ 
IC-250OA 35w440/IOw 1.2GHz FM....D 1039.00 82^ 
Multi-band FM Transceiver ReEi*lar SALE 
IC-Ml 50w 2r?i/35w 440 FM )^vr....... $1050,00 879® 

UX-fl91A Broad band receiver unit 53100 449»5 

UX-19A lOw 10m unit 317.00 269^= 

UX-59A 10w6munft 369.00 %W^ 

UK-S92A 2m SSB/CW module 635.00 549^= 

UX-39A 25w 220MHz unit 540.00 449^^ 

UX-129A lOw l,2GHz unit.. , 58100 4899^ 

UX-49A 440MHz module for IC-900 ..369,00 31 9^^ 

IC-970A 25w 2m/430MHz Kcvr/ps. 2839.00 2348 

iC-97QH 45w 2m/430 MHz xcvr/ps. 307100 2548 

UX-R96 50-905 MHz receive unit 413.00 349*^ 

yX-S7 1.2GHz band unit 1069.00 899'^ 

VHF/UHF Mobile Antenna Regular SALE 

AH-32 2fn/440 Dual Band mobile ant $39.33 

Larsen PO-HM Magnetic mount.... 28.75 

VHF/U HF Repeaters Regular SALE 

RP-152Q 2m 25w repeater , $2367.00 1988 

RP-2210 22QMHZ 25w repeater _ 2009,00 1658 

RP-4020 440MHz 25w repeater. 2439.00 1 998 

RP-402D/50W 440MHz 50w repeater.... 2648.00 2138 
RP'122Q 1,2GH2 lOw fepeater 2756.00 2298 

Dye to space limrts some items are not listed. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 



Handhelds Regular 

IC-P2AT H£W!2mHT $412.00 

IC-P3AT MEW! 220MHz KT 4 IZOO 
IC-P4AT N£WI 440 MHz HT 468.00 

IC*2A L5w2mHT« ClQSBQUt, 

1C-2AT 1.5wZmKI/rrP..... 265.00 
IC-Q2AT/HP 5w 2m KT/nP. 345.00 
IC-03AT Z5w220HT/nP..325 00 

IC-ZSAT Zm ffrmP ..„ 399 00 

IC-2SA 2m KT D 345.00 

IC-2SAT Zrn/TTP, 37^00 

JC-2SRA 2in/25^905ra.... 572.00 

rC'24AT 2my440MHz/rrP ...456 00 
IC4SAT220WHzHT/T7P..„ 357,00 
IC-4EAT 440MHz/rr? ....... 392.00 

IC-ISAT 440MHiHT/TTP„.. 392,00 
IC-4SRA 440/25-905 nt...... 579.00 

IC-12EAT 1.2GHz/rTP 515.00 

IC-W2A 2m/440 HT 588.00 

Abcraft tend hmdhaMe Regular 

A-2 5W PEP synth aircraft HT 525.00 

A-2fl aircraft HT w/VOR • Ctamtf „„ 625.00 
A-21 Nsvicom Plus Aircraft HT. 660.00 



SAl£ 
349« 

359^> 
389« 

2T^ 
Z89» 
273« 
329« 
279* 
319» 
47i« 
379» 
2S9** 
329** 
329** 
489*» 
429» 
499B 

SM£ 

429fs 

469^* 

499«* 



For info/prices on HT accessaries * CALL 




Shortwave Receivers 

R>1 100kHz-1.3GHzAM/FM[M«M., 

R-71A 100kHZ'30MKz few „, 

RC-ll Infrared remote controller.. 

FL-32A 500 Hz CW filter..... 

FL-63A 250 Hz CW fitter (1st IF) -^ 

FI-44A SS8 filter (2nd IF).. 

EX-257 FMunit 

EX-310 Voice synthesizer... 

CR-B4 High stablity oscillator xtal 
R-72 30kHz-30IV!Hz SW receiver 



Replar 
.$545,00 

, 1204 

..„,7L 

69 

„... 59 
... 178 

49 

..... 59 



SAL£ 
45^ 

989«* 



f& 



00 
00 
00 
00 169 

00 

00 
..... t iff\t\} 
. 1103.00 929» 



■^ 


Accessaries for ' 
M/R-72/R-100/R-91)00 
CALL 


W4M^KEE^P^^< 


^Jm^^^BSttlSM 


^^Kh^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B 


r. O * CiC 


L 4 



R-100 100hH2-L856GHzAM/FM,12v. $721.00 599" 

R-700fl 25MH2-2GHZ recefver ,....„ i43 LOO 1138 

RC-12 Infrared remote controJIer...... 71.00 

EX-31Q Voice synthesizer .,...^.. 59.00 

lV*R7000ATVunit.™««-.. 139.00 I29« 

R-7100 25MHz -2 GHz racveiver .......1479.00 1228 

H-90Qa 10OkK2-2GHz all mode rec 5851.00 4898 



Large ICOM receivers include a Coupon 
redeemable toward the purchase of a ICOM R-1 
from AES"^ for only $349» [Umitad Oifef 1) 



Order Toll Free: 1-800-558-04 1 1 FAX: (414) 358-3337 

AMATEUR ELECTRONIC SUPPLY® 

571 W. Good Hope Road; Milwaukee, Wl 53223 • Phone (414) 358-0333 

AES BRANCH STORES 



WICKLIFFE, Ohio 44D9Z ORLANDO, Fla. 32803 CLEARWATER, Fla. 34625 LAS VEGAS, Nev. 89tOB 

28940 Euclid Avenue 621 Commonwealth Ave. 1698 Drew Street 1072 N. Rancho Drive 

Phone (21S} 585-7388 Phone (407) 894-3238 Phone (813) 461-4267 Phone (702) 647-31 14 

1-800-321-3594 1-800-327-1917 No Toll Free Line 1-800-634-6227 



Watch for Future 

AES® Branch Store 

Openings! 



Satcttit 




J!M KB0GGT' DAT\I' KB0XC- K[HBY KA07TE- LOUIS KA13IPN 

CHRIS N0OVF' DENESE XYL^ fi/lALINE XVL 

DOROTHY KBOJPS' JOHN N0IS17U44L1S/UB5WJD 



1-800-426-2891 



■A 




FT-IOOOD Deluxe HF w^optro 

FT- 1000 Delude HF 

FT 767 GX Gen 

FT-757GX1(Gen 

FT^ 

FL-7 

FT-7; 

FR. 

FrZ90R/l* 

FT^«90AilM. 

FT-790AU 

FT-4 

FT-! 

R-24(]g 

FT-212RH2 

FT-712 7 

FT 

FT 

FT^tfn 70CM 

FT-26R2MFM3W 

FT-76R70CMFM^ 



LIST 
4399 00 

3399.00 




Call$ 

Call$ 
Call$ 
Call S 

Cans. 




IC-73UDeluK« HF w/scope 

IC-7e1pfifi, Cvg iScvr 

IC-735 

IC-725 

IC 726 Ge' 

(C'R70Q0 2: 

lC'fi71 

iC 

IC^7I 

IC'2410 



I02ZBH2MF 
1C'W2A2M/7J 
IC24AT2 
IC-2SAT 2 
IC'2SA 2M mini H 
IC3SAT 220MHz 
IC.4SAT440MHi 
IC-4GAT440MHzJ 



449.00 



ts 

CaJiS 
CaMS 
adS 
S 

Cans 
c^ts 

Calls 

Cans 

Calls 

all $ 
Calls 
Call$ 



IS^ALINCO 



ftUNCQ 



Astron 

Bunemut 
Cus4i craft 

Digilar 0««| 

Hustter 

KAM 



ELECTRONICS INC 

Kantronics 



liF*Cdnoeptg 

Sony 

VIbroflox 

Camel 



Plus more. . . Thanks for your support. 




1-800-426-2891 
METRO: (61 2) 786-4475 

2663 County Rd. I 
Mounds VieWtMN 551 12 

Super Minnesota Watts 1 -800-279-1 503 




Figure 5b. PC board parts layouL 



about 5Wc if the 



CIRCLE 153 ON REA0ER SERVICE CAI^D 

40 73 AmatGur Radio Today • August 1 992 







Parts List 




Resistors: 




R4a 


27k 


R1 


56k 


R44 


330ol^rfis 


R2 


eaok 


R45 


1^ 


R3 


220k 


R46 


220k 


R4 


tSk 


H47 


15k 


B5 


15k 


B4a 


lOOkpot 


R6 


100k 


B49 


sek 


R7 


100k 


R5Q 


47k 


R8 


look 


Capacitors: 




R9 


3.9k 


CI 


10^iF/25V Bed. 


RIO 


4.7 MEG 


G2 


1.5^iF/25VTant. 


R11 


56k 


C3 


1-5MF/25VTan1. 


Rt2 


22k 


04 


1.5MF/25VTant. 


R^3 


22Qk 


C5 


1.5MF/25VTanl. 


R14 


10k 


C6 


1^|iF/25VTanL 


R15 


27k 


G7 


1.5pF/25VTant 


R16 


33k 


C8 


68 pF ceramic 


Rt7 


10k 


C9 


4 J tiF/25V rant 


fits 

1 _ 


3,3k 


CIO 


41 ^F/25V TanL 


' R19 


a 9k 


C11 


66 pF ceramic 


R2G 


3.9k 


012 


0.:^ ^iF/Mylar 


R21 


27k 


013 


0,22pFTant. 


R22 


3Sk 


C14 


4.7 HF/25V TanL 


R23 


27k 


CIS 


47 ^F/25V Elect. 


R24 


5.6k 


016 


2200 pf mica 


R25 


56k 


G17 


OJ jiF Mylar 


R26 


47k 


018 


660 pF 


1 R27 


22k 


Dkxies: 




R2S 


5,Gk 


D1.D2&D3 


1hf914orequ*v. 


R29 


27k 










FETs: 




R30 


27k 










Q1 


MPF-102 


R31 


15k 


Q4 


J174 


R32 


Ik 






R33 


eeofwia 


Transistors: 




R34 


12k 


02. Q3 


2NP7P2A 


R35 


4.7k 


ICs: 




R36 


4.7k 


1 ea. 


LM-319N 


R37 


4,7 MEG 


2ea. 


LM358N 


Rse 


82k 


1 ea. 


CD4016(orCD4066) 


R39 


6S0k 


1 ea. 


CD4029 


R40 


27k 


2ea. 


0040938 


R41 


27k 


1^. 


LM317I_Z 


R42 


27k 







input from the microphone 
is driving the ALC circuit 
beyond its designed maxi- 
mum of 12 dB of audio 
level compression. This 
FET is dcaciivated as soon 
as the audio peaks no 
longer exceed the com- 
pression range. 

A jack is provided for 
an LED that will light ai 6 
dB of compression, and 
remain lighted at all high- 
er compression levels. The 
microphone input level 
should be such that this 
LED flashes on occasion- 
ally, but not continually, 
while the transmitter is be- 
ing modulated. 

With both input and 
output levels easily adjust- 
ed, this onit will work 
well with almost any 
transmitter with medium 
to high impedance input. 

This MIC level device 
is just an example of a 
practical application of 
digital ALC. For use with* 
in a ttansmitter under con- 
struction, the input FET 
and output pad network 
could be eliminated — and 
the DALC insened in the 
audio chain wherever the 
level is about IV. Adding 
another counter and quad 
bilateral switch would per- 
mit the incremental p>cak 
output range to be any 
fraction of a dB« and/or 
the range coidd be extend* 
edio 15 or20dB. 




i 



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-seHi 



1 
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p. S ?. J..««»" 



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. ^OV' 



itf»>^ 




6LEM0 

You want a JOf] 

bargraph & a fiiU -€>^y 
range counter - i^^^f^ 
PP toelec tronics "^ *^«fa ^j/^^^/ 
can deliver! °^* "* 

Now for a limited time only, $160. 
off the list price, for our Full Range 
Model 281 witfi bargrapli - plus: 

■ 

' • Full range -lOHz to 3GHz. 

LCD display (daylight visibility). 

True state-of-the-art technology 
with the high speed ASIC. 

• NiCads & Charger included. 

• Ultra-high sensitivity. 

• 4 fast gate times. 

• Extruded metal case. 

• Compatible with MFJ207. 

Suggested options 

TA100S: 

Telescoping Whip Antenna........... $ 1 2. 

CC30 

Vinyl L'^rry O3S0> ..■r*,<ii,k*ii>k«t*kti»«fTTS^ iD' 

BL28: 

EL Backlight for use in roomiight and [ow 

light,.. ,„„. S 45. 

TCXO 30: 

Precision ±0.2ppm 20 to 40''C temp, 
compensated time base „ $100. 



Made in 
the USA 



a 






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^"•■■^■r- B J. 


■1 


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B ' 


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mmtmmm — ■■! 


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^^^^^^^^ 


— 


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— ^ 




^1 im 

Call for free catalog - Factory Direct Order Line: 

1-800-327-5912 

PL (305)771-2050 • FAX (305)771 -2052 



Universal 
Handi-Counter™ 
Model 3000^ $375. and 
Bench Model 8030, S579. 
Both offer frequency, 
period, ratio and time 
interval 




5821 NE 14th Ave. • Ft, Lauderdale, FL 33334 
5% Ship/Handling (Max. $10) U.S. & Canada 
15% outside continental U,S,A, 
Visa and Master Card accepted. 



ClffCLE 172 ON READER SERVICE CAF»} 



^■h* 



73 Review 



Numbei' 9 on your Feedback card 



by Greg Saville N7IDB 



AEA's Weather FAX 



Decoder 

HF FAX on an IBM PC. 



Advanced Electronic Applications. Inc. 

RO,BoxC2l60 

2006 196th St. S.W. 

Lynwood WA 98036 

(206) 774-5554 

Price Class: SI 50 



The A E A- FAX™ is a multi-intensity gray-scale 
FAX receiving system tiiat works witli IBM or 
mnfipattble compulers. Those of you who are fa- 
miiiar with AEA's PK-232 multimode TNC already 
Nnow that its FAX capabtJity is limited in that it can 
only decode two l@vels of brightness. While Ihis 
prowdes reasonable resufts lor simple Itne draw- 
ings like weather charts, it leaves a lot to be de- 
sired for true gray-scale transmissions such as 
satellite images or newswire photographs. Ttie 
AEA-FAX system can decode 16 levels o1 gray, 
which provides very nice reproduction of satelfite 
photos transmitted by line NO A A weather services 
when viewed on a VGA video monitor, 

Whal Do You Gel? 

The AEA-FAX svstem includes a FAX demodu- 
lator adapter, softwaie on both S-1/2' and 5-1/4' 
disks, and a 28-pa9e owners manual 

The FAX decoder modulator resembles a large 
serial connector with male and female 25-pin RS- 
232 D connectors. One connector plugs in to one 
o1 your serial ports while the other side can accept 
another seriaf device (like a PK-232 or modem, 
but not a mouse) so both can share the port. 
When youVe nol using the AEA-FAX. your com- 
puler can still use the other serial device so you 
don*t have to keep plugging and unplugging ca* 
bles when you want to use the port lor something 
else. Tl)e demodulator adapter has a 5' shielded 
audio cable wfth a standard 1/8' phone plug that 
connects to your receiver's remote speaker jack to 
provide the FAX input. 

AEA thoughtiully includes their software on both 
sizes of disks, so you don't have to worry about 
being sure of getting the right version for your sys- 
tem and they don't have to worry about stocking 
two different versions. 

The owner's rnanual is very well written and quite 
complete. It begins with a one*page "Quick Start 
Procedure' section for those of us who are most 
anxious to get up and njnning immedialely. More de- 
tails follow, including "Hardware Requirements/ 
"System Overview,' Tunctions of the Components.' 
Installation of the Hardware and Software," "Run- 
ning the Program,'* and "Capturing Live Data/ plus a 
techDica! discussion of how facstmlte transmissions 
work and more details of how to use the various 
software modes, with command summaries. Lastly, 
some weather FAX frequencies are listed^ along 
with a short discussion of radio propagation consid- 
eiBtions, a glossary, and illustrations of the system 
layout and exarr^les of the various received wave^ 
fofrtis as stKJwn by the Winiscope functioru 

42 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 



..im 



1 






:^ 



Photo A. AEA-FAX fs menu-drlv&n and 
mouse compatfbte for ease of use. 




Photo B. Using the minlscope while capturing 
a weather FAX. 




Photo C. Sample weather satBttft& image 
showing the high quaitty possible when w'ew- 
ing on a VGA screen. 

Quick Start Procedure 

Installation and setup was very brief and easy, 
thanks to the Quick Start Procedure, I just plugged 
the device Into my GOMt port, plugged the audio 
cable into my TS-440. mounted the floppy disk in 
my system and typed: INSTALL The install pro- 
gram creates an AEA-FAX directoiy on your hard 
disic and copies ail the software to it I started Ihe 



program by typing: FAX, and then tuned in a FAX 
transmission. In just a few seconds a weather 
chart started to appear on my screenl While wait- 
ing for the Image to complete, I read some more of 
the manual. As more of the piclufe appeared. I no- 
ticed that the image was somewhat slanted, but 
found tnstruclJons to adjust the timing to my sys- 
tem to provide p€rfecBy aligned images. I found 
the program very easy to use: Windows and 
menus are provided for all funclkins, help screens 
are available and all selections can be made with 
arrow keys or a mouse. 

You can find your way around and do just about 
everything without even needing the manual, 

View Mode 

Once a complete image is received, you can 
save it to disk for later viewing. To load a saved 
FAX, just select the "Load a Picture from Disk* 
menu item with the mouse or arrow keys. A direc- 
tory listing of available pictures is displayed and 
you [ust click on the one you wanL Next, you se- 
lect "View the Current Picture** from the menu and 
the FAX is displayed. Several viewing options are 
available in view mode, including moving the pic- 
ture left or right, scrolling up or down to see pic- 
tures larger than your display, mirror, flip, invert, 
zoom, print, color palette selection or edit, and a 
help function. Pictures can even be exported to 
PCX Paintbrush file format for further editing or 
touch-up with PC Paint. 

InptJt Mode 

Capturing pictures couldn*t be easier; the soft- 
ware automatically detects start and sync tones 
and adjusts itself for different FAX formats. It even 
automatically adjusts the gray-scale level decod- 
ing to the signal to ensure full gray-scale represen- 
tation. 

While in input mode, there are several com- 
mands you can enter including toggle invert, tog- 
gle reverse^ lines per minute select, index of coop- 
eration select, automate mode, screen clear, re- 
sync screen, miniscope select and a help screen. 

Mini scope 

Proper tuning of your receiver to the FAX signal 
is vital for good results and AEA provides a handy 
way to adjust your receiver with the built-in Minis- 
cope. Anytime you're receiving a FAX. you can se- 
lect the Miniscope by pressing the "M" key. The 
screen splits and shows a spectrum analysis of the 
FAX signal in the lower window of tbe screen. In real 
time, you can watch the effect of tunirrg and volume 



PAY TV ANO SATELLITE 0ESCRAM8LING 
ALL NEW 1991 EDITION 



1992 edition updaies latest drcutts, tum-ons, bypasses, 
bull els, bags, blackciphers, VCII plus, and B-Mac fixes. 
Only^ £15,95. V£irjdiStatJbaeker"s bi ble includes 
Pius. TeJIs AJr. S15.95. Pay TV and Satelliie 
Des^farrtblfng VOL.1 (BASJCS), 1^39, 1991 Edition$ are 
all different. S14 95 each. MDS Handbook S9,95. 
Satellite systems under $600. $12.95 (52). Any 3/$29.95 
or 5/S49,95, Scram bttng news morthly will keep you up 
to date on Plus Breaks. S24.95/ Vr. Special. Everything 
we have Including Video. Si 09 .9 5- New Catalog SI- 



Scrambling Mews, 15S2P Herlel Ave., Buffalo, 
N.V. 14216 COD'S 716-874-2088 Voice/FAX 



CIRCLE 36 DM READER SERVtOE CARD 



RDC| 



THIS MONTH'S GOODIE FROM THE CAMDY STORE 

YAESU % 

FT^411Eyi7 
UNDER $2SS.OO 

Simflar Savings On Yaesu, Astron, 
Kenwood. HyGain, Alirco, Elc, AJ| L.T.O 

MFJ-81Se $54,00 
O^er 9039 Ham noms in StcKk. ail Prices, Cash FOB Pfeston. 
Mg-re SpQcels in HAM- ADS. Lool^ng for Something nor Listed? 

Call Today (208) 852-0830 

ROSS OaSTRiBUTrNG COMPANY 

78 S. Stflto Street, Preston, id, 83263 

Hours Tug.-Fri. a-S - U-2 Mondays .Clpsed Sat, & Sun. 




Twr 



Today's No^Tune 
Multiband Antenna 



CIRCLE 254 OH READER SERVICE CARP 



N? 



4^ 



!o pniciLH^. fm NT>rujtlng. No knof>Mo twist. 

TNT h No-Tumf op sO cw. 40. 30, 17. 12. la TKTC '» S-o^tiiEi^ on 
40^ 2)0, 10. Work <nh^!;r bind* ^i mncr. DX AGam m< w/ fr^ijuemrj' 



Inc-ladi^ii t4obtion 
bafufi Si 99 ft RGS.^ 
The 77ii:^Fn ^miX-fed 
version cfthe classic 
<?j^itflfer JW H-indcym. 

Antennas We sf 

Box 50062S, Frovo. UT Si605 



Kinii-Priol 
Wx-S<J!4d 
Low Noise 





No 'Irf^pi i->r KesEsrofs 
Insiilatf d !0 3000 V 
dated 500 U^nt 

$89** 

fn 15 J fr. ]cn^ 



PAH 



WindoM ^> t[, long 



H.S?f flOO-926-7373 



CIRCLE 135 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



^ 100 PAGE 
" CATALOG 

^ Communications Recervers 

Portable Receivers 

Scanner^ 
' Amateur HF Transceivers 

VHF'UHF Transceivers 

HTsand Mobiles 

> Amateur and SWL Antennas 
Accessories and Parts 
RTTY and FAX Equipment 

> Books and Manuals 

This catalog includes prices! 

Send 
$1to 



Universal Radio 

6830 Americana Pkwy. 73 
Reynoldsburg, OH 43068 

Tel. 614 866*4267 



DISCOVER LOW PRICES 

>L^S»HICfc#l-T*fl9n,ySA 64c wi. artTSr2S 
PL-i!S9- S^rM^r-Tetion . USA * 1 .29 e». or tZSf2^ 
PL.259 C3Dld,Tf Ikirt, ySA $I.4I»««. 9ri30fit 
N Conmctor tortiia, ggli, CQ-Ffexl *a.15 

9Cii6 lKilem«liontl i:EII*S9l3, tKri b«ttwf 4fi£ 
CQ-Flcjcl Hew^ Fleirlble «913-typ«, law lata 
laf Cr&nh lip IcitatY, TqipEpr^, HF - UHF S2( 
Ca4!Q4X MM 9&<^ Solid, Type tIA Cover ZSc 

ROr«X 9S%^ Br*Jd, Premium auak ISc y 

R&2I3 Mil.T^fht PFTrn, CoiJ 34f / 

3f)g Qhift P«ly Lwmcr-J.tn* 13c 
450 Ohm Paly Ladchtr-Llfw 1 Ji; 
aOOOhmHaravyTwrinlSf j 

TaOtimSupflrrwIniBi:^ ^^ ^ 
ft4AnlflnniWHvBL i 

WiivABBtsle 

S^l£|l[i[:;e»On 
'[OOinct. J 




BALUNS 

Cunent'type 

Labontonf D«velop«d 

Unequabd Sp^plKBliona 

14 mcdela for irery ipFriicati^sn 

Superior Conslnjciion, 

^tiinieas hardware 

ei-SK 1;1 2KW CurrEn|,ealuR- TT.SS 

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73 Amateur Radio Today * August, 1992 43 





Figure 1^ Sample hard copy output of a 
weather sateflite image as printed by AEA- 
FAX on a faserpnnter. 



/an, 




850nB E4HR PROG 



PHC 



WP 



1Tt7 



fafu 111b 



Figure 2. Sample hard copy of a lypicai 
weattier chart as printed by AEA-FAX on a 
laser printer. 



^Sij-- 



/i 'tM 



«..=. "^-^ 




y^"*- ,.\l^ 






tt= - 



-< 



1 * 






'l^ 




^^ ^ 



V— ' 



■ I ^^ '"■ • 



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sena a4Hi5 ppgg eprc h 



P^ofo D, A sample weather chart produced 
by the AEA-FAX. 

tevel adjustments and select the settings thai give 
you the best quality pk;ture. I like the mintscope so 
well that 1 almost always leave it on. 

Advanced Features 

Watching an image slowly appear line by line is 

44 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 




JUwnOoc* SaNanf P^Haf^qh 4tjii^m 



Photo E. AEA-FAX includes an image export utility that converts images to standard "PCX'' 
PC-Paintbrush format for editing and touch-up. 

way to start the autofist unattended capture func- 
tion. As it is now, you need to select Ihe autollst 
menu option and type in several parameters, exit, 
and then start aiffolist with ALT-L Td like to see a 
simpler setup where you just select a menu item 
that starts decoding and saving alt files right away 
with some default, yet unique file names. It would 
also be nice if Ihere was a way to load and view a 
fite in one step, like maybe doubte dicking on the 
file name As it is now, you lirst select the load 
functton. select the file you want to load, itien se- 
lect the view function. This gets tedious rf you 
have 30 or so new files you'd like to quickly scan 
through. 

Being the tinkerer that most hams are, Td also 
like to see a schematic diagram for the demodula- 
tor circuit, Ifs a pretty simple, yet clever, circuit 
that taps its voltage irom the RS'232 control lines 
and does an amazing job of decoding analog lev- 
els through a serial portf 

One other minor suggestion has to do with the 
product packaging. Tbe box contains a little com- 
partment fof the disks artd I noticed thai my 3-1/2' 
disk fits pretty snugly, enough so that the floppy 
disk case is now permanently distorted. No! 
enough to prevent the disk from spinning, but it 
doesn't look like it would take much more to cause 
trouble. I've cfecided not to snap the disk back into 
its compartment for storage. 

Lastly, I think a nice follow-on product would be 
another program or software upgrade to use the 
demodulator circuit to decode and display SSTV 
pictures, It seems the hardware is capable; it 
would just take some additional software to display 
it properiy. 

Do I Like tt? 

I have lhorou§hJy enpyed playing with the AEA- 
FAX system and especially like seeing the ever- 
changing cloud patterns from the satellite photos. 
The software is quite good, easy to use, and 
hasn't exhibited any bugs. For the enjoyment val- 
ue alone, I feel quite satisRed. For someone who 
really needs access to the various weather infor- 
mation available, the cost is very reasonable. 



fun the first few times, but since it can take 10 to 
15 minutes for a complete transmission, it be- 
comes less exciting with time. This is where the 
unattended capture or "Autolisf feature is appreci- 
ated. The Aulolist function allows you lo capture 
pictures automatk^ally while you're away from the 
system for viewing at a later time, Optk)ns allow 
you to program a spedfk; timetable to collect just 
the images you want, as tong as you know the 
schedule of the statbn you're listening to. 

Entering a special time of 99:99 sets the Au- 
tofist feature to decode and save every FAX trans- 
mitted. This turns out to be my favorite mode. 

Images can be printed on Epson 9- or 24-pin 
dot matrix printers or on Hewlett Packard compati- 
ble laser printers in 150 or 300 dots per inch reso- 
lution. I found that text or line drawings, like most 
weather charts, printed nicely, but multi-level gray- 
scale photographs obviously can't be printed as 
well on a device that only rtas two color choices- 
black or white. In its best mode, the program 
dithers the image to provide nine gray levels at the 
expense of some resolution k)ss. While the printed 
images can't approach the quality of the on-screen 
views, they sure were a hit In my son's elementary 
school class when they were studying a unit on 
weather. 

A neat slide show utility is provided, which is a 
great way to show off your best images. This 
mode allows you the ability to display a series of 
cloud-cover pictures like they do on the 11p,m. TV 
news. 

The utilities menu offers a number of file han- 
dling and capture functions including salting up a 
default directory for file operations, printer selec- 
tion and options, start and stop tone threshold, 
slop tone frequency, auto sync delay, display 
shades, menu screen colors, and even adjustment 
for a buitt-in screen saver mode. 

Suggestions 

While I'm really impressed and satisfied with 
the unit, there always seems to be something mi- 
nor that can be improved. Td like to see an easier 



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The MK831 features uniJied manipulator and 
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•Tola! Length (ind. keyer): l^QT 



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MK802 230.00 Telegraph Hand Key .,,....,...,....2.5 lbs. 



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Single lever key designed for use w^lh an electronic 
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MK70t 68,95 Straight Telegraph Key...... 2.1 tbs. 





MK706 

Shown 

With Base 



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MK706-a94" X 3.54" 

Double lever iambic key designed for use with an 
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MK706 64.50 Iambic Telegraph Key w; Ba^ ...1.9 lbs. 



MORSE TRAINER TAPES 

ARRL Morse 
Trainer 
Tapes 

When A comes to the code, wheitier 
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working on your Ettra Clas^ 
upgrade, fx^cfioe makes pedect! 



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73 Review 



Mumber 10 on your Feedback Card 



by David Cassidy NIGPH 



The Larsen KG 2/70 

Glass-Mounted Antenna 



Larsen Antennas 

R0„ 1799 

Vancouver WA 98668 

Telephone: (206) 944^7551; 

(8O0) 426-1 656 

Price Ciass: %m 



Until very recently, I have always driven 
what could be kindly referred to as 
•fdunkers' While cUI of my friends were taking 
out huge ioans to get the latest and greatest 
offering from Detroit or Tokyo. I was stuck 
with whatever the used car safesman thought 
he could dunr^p on me. 

For a ham, there is one advantage to driv- 
ing an old, beat-up car: You never have to 
worry about attaching any kind of antenna to 
it. Since tfiere is no way to harm a car that is 
already overdue for the junkyard, you can 
drill, attach, fasten, hang and install to your 
heart's content 

Ail of this changed for me when I ftnally 
bought my first never- before-driven. "0" on 
the odometer, brand-new car. It's a littJe red 
coupe, and the last thing 1 wanted to do was 
slap a mag-mount on ttiat shiny paint, or stick 
some aerial monstrosity on the trunk lip. 
Since I wanted to operate txsth 2 meters and 
440 MHz, I needed a dual-band antenna. Al- 
so, since I live in a very hilly area of the 
world, i wanted a bit more signal punch than 
your average quarter wave. Of course, the 
answer to a new-car owner's prayers Is a 
through-the-glass antenna, but a few calls to 
the various mail order companies soon con- 
firmed my worst fears: Nobody makes a dual- 
band, glass-mounted antenna^ I swallowed 
my pride, opened my wallet and was soon 
dragging along a very nice, but very ugly, du- 
al-band antenna — complete with wfiat looked 
like a military-issue trunk lip mount (actually* 
it was a high-quality piece of hardware from a 
very well-known company, but the high loan 
payments for the new car had clouded my 
judgement). 

Not long after I broke down and installed 
the trunk-mounted antenna, Larsen started 
advertising their new KG 2/70 dual-band, 
glass-mounted antenna. A few phone calls 
and one more trip to my wallet for the credit 
card later, I was the proud owner of a duat- 
band, glass-rrK)unted antenna. 

The KG 2/70 

The KG 2/70 is a sleek-looking, unobtru- 
sive antenna. With its black polyurethane 
coating and the exposed coil-in-the-whip de- 
sign, it looks like a cellular phone antenna on 
steroids! 

Electrically, the KG 2/70 is a half wave on 
2 meters and a collinear on 70 centimeters, 
No ground plane is needed (go look it up» if 

4S 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 



you want to know why), and Larsen claims 
gain of 2.5 dBd on 2 meters ami 4.5 dBd on 
70 centimeters. 

The antenna is pre-tuned to provide a 
1,5:1 SWR. Minor adjustment is provided by 
moving the whip up or down Bbout 1/2 inch 
and securing it with a setscrew* I found that 
this adjustment had minimal effect on the 
SWR, so ] left it as it came from the factory — 
fully inserted. 

Installing the KG 2/70 

Installing the KG 2/70 takes all of about 10 
minutes. Everything you need is included, 
and the step- by-step instructions are quite 
clear. 

The only trick to installing any glass- 
mounted antenna is making sure the glass is 
at room temperature. (Since I ordered the an- 
tenna around Thanksgiving and I don't have 
a garage, L waited until April!) The only other 
precaution ts to make sure your window is 
clean, both Inside and out. Ignore either of 
these precautions and you may find yourself 
dragging your antenna down the highway 
someday. 

After deciding where you want to mount 
the antenna (usually the upper edge of the 
back window), all you do is clean the glass, 
swab the surface with the supplied alcohol 
pad (to get the glass realty clean), measure 
and mark with a pen (so you get it right where 
you want it), apply the supplied adhesive, 
peel off the tracking on the mounting plates 
(one for ih© inside and one for the outside), 
and press, I would suggest that you peel off 
the backing paper from the mounting plates 
before applying the liquid adhesive to the 
window. This stuff dries very quickly, and you 
don't want to be fumbling with the backing 
paper while it does. 

Once you have the plates stuck to the in- 
side and outside of your window, the only 
thing left to do is run the coax (a few press-on 
coax clips are supplied to help route the coax 
along the top of your window), solder on the 
supplied PL-259 and attach it to your rig. Your 
initial thought upon seeing the supplied but 
unsoldered PL'259 may be, "Those lazy 
@#+%&s! Couldn't they have installed the 
lousy plug!" After a few moments, you'll also 
realize how much easier it is to route the 
coax through your vehicle without that bulky 
connector hanging up on everything. Wait un- 
til you're done routing the coax to the rig. 




then solder on the PL-259. It will save you 
time and skinned knuckles. 

On The Road 

The true test of 
any antenna is how it 
works in real-world 
conditions (I proba- 
bly wouldn't feel this 
way if I had an an- 
tenna test range, but 
I don't). I set up an 
A-B test between the 
KG 2/70 and the top- 
quality dual-band an- 
tenna I had been us- 
ing. 

The KG 2/70 
turned in almost 
identical perform- 
ance to my other 
dual-band antenna. 
When you consider 
that the antenna isn't 
physically connected 
to the radio, this is 
pretty amazing. In 
fact, the KG 2/70 
was a little better on 
transmit. This was 
probably due to the 

fact that the KG 2/70 was mounted at the 
very top of my rear wirwJow* while my other 
antenna was attached with a trunk lip mount, 
placing a major portion of the antenna ele- 
ment below the roof line. 

On the receive side of the coin, I didnt no- 
tice any difference at alt, but in another A-B 
test between the KG 2/70 and a 2 meter 5/8- 
wave mag-mount, the KG 2/70 provided a no- 
ticeable increase in the receive range (about 
two S-units), 

Conclyslon 

I am quite pleased wHh the performance of 
my KG 2/70. If you were ever disappointed by 
eariier experiences with capacitively-coupled, 
glass-mounted antennas, you should give 
this new antenna a try. 1 have to admit that I 
was never impressed with the performance of 
glass-mounted antennas. Sure, they worited 
OK^ but they were a compromise between 
aesthetics and performance. The KG 2/70 
lets me have my cake and eat it too J 

. . . and it looks cool on my little red car! 



Photo A. the Larsen 
KG 2/70 mounts di- 
rectly on glass. 



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for 20-1 5-12-10 Meters 

Operate As A Dipole on 1 7 Meters 




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73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 47 



Number 1 1 on your Feedback carcJ 



A Frequency Counter Upgrade 



Accuracy at the flip of a switch. 

by James Flynn KD9ZT 



Many hams have a frequency counter as 
part of their station, or for use as a test 
instrumenL Ff you're in this group* I'm sure 
you wonder how accurate your counter is. 
Frequency is often a point of argumeni 
among amateurs, and discrepancies exist. In 
this article, Fll explain an inexpensive modi- 
fication, adaptable to almost any counter, that 
I used to make a highly accurate and stable 
instrument. 

Frequency Counters 

A short review of frequency counter opera- 
tion will show the cause of inaccurate dis- 
plays, "Timebase" refers to the length of 
time (usually I or 0, 1 second) that an elec- 
tronic '*gate" allows for the unknown input 
signal to reach the counters. While this gate is 
open, the cycles of the unknown signal are 
counted. When the gate closes, the count is 



cy is divided, so is the frequency error. The 
oscillator mav be off several kHz, but after 

division by several miUion, the error be- 
comes minute. Still, extreme precision is es- 
sential, ardi crystal oscillators are prone to 
drift with time and temperature, leaving lime- 
base accuracy in question. 

My counter is an inexpensive Heathkit IM- 
2410, purchased tbrtune-ups, tinkering, and 
repair work. 1 soon realized that warm-up 
drift of the unit was substantial, amounting to 
500 Hz on the 2 meter band over a two-hour 
period. T was dissatisfied with such dubious 
accuracy, and began pondering ways to mod- 
ify the timebase oscillator for better stability. 
A crystal oven or a substitute timebase fre- 
quency source seemed logical choices. 

Selecting Your Standard 
Probably the must stable oscillator avail- 




iQHi 



•Hit 



/» 



able to an amateur is a surplus frequency 
standard, a proportionately controlled^ oven- 
sized, crystal oscillator. Companies such as 
GTS Knights produced these units for the US 
military. They are generally available at 
hamfests, and I have seen them in a surplus 
house catalog. 1 obtained a Knights standard, 
and began the project of adapting it to my 
counter as a substitute timebase oscillator. 

The Knights frequency standard is housed 
in a plated brass can 2" x 2" x 5'' long. All 
connections are made at the bottom through 
an octal plug/socket. Removing a threaded 
plug from the top of the can exposes a piston 
trimmer capacitor, used for precise frequen- 
cy adjustment. This unit has a frequency out- 
put of 1 MHz at approximately 4 volts rms. 
Once tempcramre and frequency stability are 
achieved, drift is specified ai no more than 
one part in 10* per day. Actual drift will 
likely be much less. It requires 28 volts EX^ at 
approximately 0.2 amps. Cold start-up cur- 
rent may reach 0.5 amps due to high demand 
by the healing element. Standards made by 
other manufacturers may have different out- 
puts and power requirements* 

The Heath lM-2410 timebase frequency is 
generated by an adjustable 3.579 MHz crys- 
tal oscillator/divider, VIO (Figure 1). VIO 
output frequency is 60 Hz. Driver transistor 
Q6 provides a suitable waveform to U8, a 
dividc*by*six with 10 Hz output. These 1 and 
10 Hz frequencies are routed from a front 
panel switch to the signal input gate circuitry 
to allow selection of a 1 or J second gate. 



Figure L The Heath lM-24iO timebase frequency is generated hy an adjusiabie 3.579 MHz Des%ning th^ Modification 

crystal oscillator /divider, UIO. lt*s apparent from the Heath circuit that 10 



displayed on the front panel, circuitry is re- 
set, and the gate rc-opens for a new count. 
Obviously, if the gate remains open for too 
long or too short a time, the counter will err 
high or low, respectively. 

If the unknown signal haj^ns to be 146 
MHz, for example, a gate-timing error of 
only one-millionth of a second would pro- 
duce a count error of 146 Hz. To achieve such 
precision may seem unthinkable, but fre- 
quency division makes it possible. Most 
counter timebase s are generated by dividing 
the frequency of a crystal oscillator running 
at several MHz down to I Hz, As the frequen- 

4B 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1992 



FROM 
STANDARD 
V 



HHi 



210 




Ill-US' 7490 



*PiM5 Z, 3,E^r. ID TO CRQUND 



Figure 2. To build ihis curcuit, you only need five 7490 decade counter/dividers and a piece of 
perfboard. 



Hz would be an idea] substitute frequency to 
inject into the timcbase generator. With 1 
MHz available from the Knights standard, I 
needed only to divide by 100,000, or equiva- 
Icntly, to divide by 10 five times. I bought 
five 7490 decade counter/dividers and a piece 
of perfboard to construct the circuit in Figure 
2. The chips are wired in series divide-by- 
ten. The Ql transistor stage was necessary to 
shape the sinusoidal output of the frequency 
standard into a shape resembling a square 
wave, with the steep edges necessary to reli- 
ably trigger the first divider, 

Diode Dl accomplishes this task by hold- 
ing the transistor in cutoff until the 4 volt sine 
wave applied to the gate reaches about -h L4 
volts. This is the combined voltage drop of 
Dl and Ql base-emitter junction. At this 
point the transistor turns on sharply, giving a 
steep leading edge to its output waveform. 
The reverse occurs on the falling edge of the 
sine wave. A second diode in series with Di 
would '"square" the output waveform even 
more, but it was unnecessary in this case. 
Note that the input waveform must be of 
ample voltage to overcome the voltage drops 
of Ql and any emitter diodes. Had the output 
of the frequency standard been insufficient, a 
preamp stage ahead of Ql would have been 
necessary to boost voltage. 

The next task was to mount the perlboard 
inside the Heath cabinet. Finding no likely 
place for nut-and-bolt mounting, I soldered 
two #16 wire **legs" to the perfboard, posi- 
tioned to match areas of ground foil on the 
Heath board. I soldered the legs to the ground 
foil, supporting my assembly above the main 
counter circuitry. This type of mounting ap- 
pears entirely adequate for small structures, I 
took +5 volts directly from the Heath regu- 
lated bus. Interfacing to the IM-2410 was 
simple "1 removed U8 from its socket and 
plugged the substitute frequency from my 
divider into the pin-8 (output) position of the 
U8 socket 

Next, I mounted the frequency standard 
onto Si 5" X 6" X %" board, which left ade- 
quale room for a companion 28-volt power 
supply, I used a Radio Shack miniature 24- 
volt transformer. The rectified, filtered DC 
output is about 34 volts, A simple Zencr 
diode-controlled pass transistor lowers 
voltage to the 28 volt requirement. Power 
supply circuit descriptions are readily avail- 
able from many sources, so I will not go into 
detail. Gt>od supply regulation is not neces- 
sary, as the Knights standard has precise 
voltage regulation internally for critical cir- 
cuitry. A 24- volt wall transformer would 
likely suffice, although I haven't tried one, 

I mounted this assembly on top of the coun- 
ter with % " standoffs to avoid blocking venti- 
lation holes. The 1 MHz input frequency is 
fed to the divider inside with RG-174 mini- 
coax, through a Vsr " phone jack installed in 
the cabinet rear panel. Vou could also place 
the standard apart from the counter and use a 
longer feed cable. To avoid an additional 1 15 
volt supply cord at my station, 1 wired the 
power supply transformer primary through a 
strain relief in the counter*s rear panel to 1 15 
volts points inside, so that the Heath line fuse 



also protects the transformer. The 28-volt 
supply and the frequency standard are always 
powered, unaffected by the counter on-off 
switch. Reassembling the cabinet completed 
installation, and a quick check confirmed that 
the counter was operating normally. 

Calibrating the Standard 

Calibration of the frequency standard is 
quite easy. Install a coaxial *T" fitting in the 
feedline of one of your HF antennas at your 
operating position. Tune your SSB rig to 
WWV at 10 MHz, then move up a few hun- 
dred Hz to hear a tone from their carrier, A 
sharp CW filter helps give a cleaner tone, 
reducing modulation effects. Feed a sample 
of the 1 MHz frequency standard output 
through a 100 pF capacitor to the coax * 'T. *' 
The tenth harmonic of the 1 MHz frequency 
w^ill beat noticeably with the WWV carrier. 
Use a miniature screwdriver to adjust die 
output frequency of the standard. 

As this frequency nears zero beat, the S- 
meter will deflect 2-4 units with each beat, 
and beats will be audible in headphones or 
speaker. It helps to calibrate the standard 
during periods when QSB on WWV is at a 
minimum. With a little practice, one beat 
every other second can be achieved. More 
accurate calibration becomes difficult due to 
confusion with QSB, but it is by no means 
necessary. A beat every two seconds is equiv- 
alent to Vi Hz error at 10 MHz. This extrapo- 
lates to a 7 Hz error on the 2-metet band, and 
to a 23 Hz error at 450 Mhz. Few counters 
can approach this accuracy. 

Maintaining Accuracy 

With this particular standard, I've noticed 
that a * 'stabilization" period is necessary 
each time the frequency trimmer is moved. I 
don't know if this is typical. 1 usually wait 
several hours to check the results of each 
adjustment. But once calibrated, months go 
by without frequency checks. It just isn*t nec- 
essary. The frequency standard runs along 
most dependably. My counter never leaves 
the shelf, but one thai is subjected to rough 
use would probably require periodic frequen- 
cy checks to maintain the accuracy stated 
above. 

This may be my most worthwhile home- 
brew project to date. It is very enjoyable to 
have accurate frequency measurement capa- 
bility at the flip of a switch— without warm- 
up, without drift* If you have the frequency 
counter * 'doldrums/' investigate adapting 
this procedure to your counter, 

W9ZTK deserves credit for the technical 
specs of the Knights frequency standard, as 
well as my thanks for his help in making this 
project a reality, 

A limited supply of 10 MHz frequency 
standards (EG&G model T-424, 1 2 VDC) 
are available for $16 ppd. from Chuck 
Houghton WB6rGP, 6345 Badger Lake, San 
Diego, CA 921 19. To use these modules 
with the circuit in Figure 2 you will have to 
add on an additional 7490 decade divider- 



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Video Ins and Outs 

it you have a computer in your 
shack, you've probably thought about 
using H to capture and display a slill- 
frame image of your ATV contacts. 
Once you have that special imag^ In 
your computer, you could label the im- 
age with the lime and dale of recep- 
tion and actually start a video logbook! 
Not only that, you couid snap a still- 
frame of yourself, label it with your 
callsign using any of several drawing 
progran^* and use this for your video 
ID. Getting thai priceless video image 
into your c^>mputer is of particular in- 
lerest to those of you who are using a 
computer tor slow-scan TV (SSTV). 

Up until recently, the only way you 
could snatch a video image Into your 
computer was through the use ot very 
expensive digitizers. Fortunately, there 
are a number ot fairly inexpensive 
boards and Interfaces now available 
that won't cost more than your com- 
puter! There are quite a few to choose 
from, and this is not a list of all that is 
available by any means. However, Td 
like to discuss a tew of the inettpen- 
stve boards Tve ain across that I Ihrnk 
will be of particular interest to ATVers 
and SSTVers. 

Btack and White Digitizers 

The teast expensive boards are 
those that will do only black and while 
Images. Depending on your needs, 
these boards are certainly the most af- 
fordable way to digitize your video im- 
age mio your computef. 



Ham Television 



The SV1000 Video Digitizer 

For just $89.96 + $5 shipping, you 
can obtain a small board thai pluQs in- 
to your computer's parallel port. It 
comes without a case and requires 
you to strap a 9-volt tjanery onto the 
board for power (you can leave the 
tjattery attached smce il ts only used 
tor power during the brief period of 
time a capture is being perforn>ed). A 
BASIC program is included in the 
package that allows you to capture a 
black and white video image in any- 
where trom 10 to 20 seconds, depend- 
ing on the resolution you require. The 
digitizer provides either 640 by 480 or 
320 by 200 resolution and will operate 
with any IBM PC or compatible from 
an 808B to a 80386 with a CGA, EGA 
or VGA display. The program allows 
you to vary contrast brightness and 
sync via software control to obtain the 
best image. The rnrvage is digitjzed in 
256 shades of gray, which results in a 
very high quality image. The SV1000 
and its companion program are avaii- 
able from Frank Lyman at Colorburst* 
RO. Box 3091, Nashua NH 03061; 
phone: (603)891-1588, 

TTie Ventoli VIP 64aM 

Coming in at $129, Ihe Vantek VIP 
640 M is a i^tack^and- white digitizer 
that plugs into an internal Slot in your 
XT computer (the VlP 640M/AT. priced 
at SI 49, is for use in an AT machine). 
These digitizers take about 1/3 of a 
second (1/5 second for the AT ver- 
sion)to capture the image (operating 
as a line grabber) and digitize the im- 
age with 256 shades of gray with a 
resolution ol 680 by 480 pixels. A PAL 
vefsion is also available. 



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Photo 6. The Ventek VfP 640M monochmme vkieo dSg^Szec 




Photo C. TTie CorrtpuferEyes R/T cchr frarrw grBtber board trom Dtg^i Vtskm. 
inc. 




Photo D. The Ventek VtP 640C color video digitizer. 



Photo A The SV-JOOO monochrome video digstiief from CoiorbufSt 
50 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 



The VJP 640M comes with some 
very powerful software that allows you 
to get the rnost out of the digitizer and 
to store the image in all popular fife 
formats. You also get a program called 
''Picture Put^lisher* rhat allows you to 
modify, edit and manipulate the image. 
For more infonriaiion, contact Teri 
Csellak or Marfc Montana at Ventek 
Corporation, 31336 Via Colin as, Suite 
102, Westlake Village CA 91362; 
phone: (818) 991-3868 or FAX: (818) 
991-4097. 

ComputerEyes B/W 

Digital Vision. Inc. offers a 
monochrome board that wilE dcgitize an 
MTSC or PAL vkJeo image for £249.95 



that plugs internally into your PC, II 
captures a 640 by 480 pixel image 
wtth 64 gray levels. It takes trom six to 
12 secoTKls to complete a capture and 
wilt support Hercules, CGA, EGA, 
VGA and Super VGA displays. Its 
companion software altows you to dis- 
piay the image in a variety of modes: 
high contrast, gray scale, dithered 
grays and false color In addition, ex- 
tensive enhancement routines allow 
you to adjust brightness and contrast, 
and to sharpen, smooth and halftone 
the image. All popular image file for- 
mats are supported. For more inlor- 
mation, contact: Digital Vision, Inc., 
270 Bridge Street. Dedham hAA 
02026: phone: (617) 329-54O0, 



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Com pu ters£ye s/RT 

All of the previous digitizers we've 
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This is OK if you have a good stlll- 
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73 Amateur Radio Today • August 1992 53 



Homing in 



Number 13 on your Feedback card 



Joe Moeit, PE, KOOV 
RO. Box 2508 
FuUGfton CA 92633 

T-Hunt Trickery 

Jammer tracking, roise location, 
search and res cue— there are many 
reasons why hams g@t into radto di- 
rection lifMJing (BDF). But no matter 
v^at your puipo^, youll find ii takes 
expenence in the fiekl to become pro- 
lident with yotir equipmenL Forlunate* 
[y, practicing Es lots ot fun when you 
gel together with tellow RDFers to 
hoEd hidden transmitter hunts, usyatly 
called T* hunts or foxhunts. 

Hams sometimes ask, "What's so 
tough about T-huntir^7 Yott just take a 
beaftng, plot it, and foltow it to the T 
No probteml' Either these people 
haveril done much hunUr>9. or they're 
incredibly Juchy, or they have never 
gone up against a woridciass hider. 

Even in the simplest hunts, one or 
more teams usually become com- 
plelefy baffled at some point. And 
when the goal is to bannboozte every- 
one, there is no end lo the stunts an 
imaginative hunlniaster can employ. 

Dirty Tricks tOI 

Most "Homing In** columns provide 
tips for the hunters. To even the score, 
It's time to help hiders prolong the sus- 
pertse and the fun. But don't tei the ti- 
tle fool you — you don't have to dk) any- 
thing illegal or unsafe to put on a 
tough hunt. Just use your ingenuity. 

When a T-hunt Is a real challenge, 
everyone benefits. The hider gets the 
satisfaction of knowing that the win- 
ners are working for their reward. The 
hunters gain valuable experience that 
may be useful on an RDF sea rehires- 
cue effort, when lives are at stal^e. 

Most RDFers I know would rather 
be foxhunting than doing any other 
ham activity. So the longer the hunt 
lasts ^ the more fun they have that day! 

Devious hiding tricks fall into four 
has\c categories: 

1. Deceptive signaf parameters 

2. Iriaccessibility 

3. IrxJirect Signal paths 

4. Gone eat menl and camouflage 
We'll limit the discussion to category 
#1 this month, and confine It to single- 
transmitter VHF events where the 
hunters are mobile. 

Typical rules tor beginners* hunts 
calf for the fox to transmit a continuous 
canier with constant power and anten- 
na polarization. If the hunt is hekt on a 
repeater input, the hider may transmit 
for tS seconds, then be off for a 
minute or so. 

To advance to a higher degree ot 
difficulty, iry sending ver/ short bursts 
of signal (if permitted). WA6FAT 
turned an easy hunt into tncKy one on 
a rainy night when he put the T in a 
replica ot a medievat tower, transmit- 
ting for a fraction of a second every 
few seconds, 
54 73 Amat&ur Radio Today * Augu 



Radh Direction Finding 

If hunt rules allow it, vary the hid- 
den transmitter power This is particu- 
larly hard on hunters using a beam, at- 
tenuator and S-meter lo get beanngs, 
because that method relies on con^ 
Stant signal leve^ for its accuracy. On 
the other hand, variabie signal 
strength will not affect doppler or time- 
ditfereriGe-of -arrival ROF sets, so long 
as the signal exceeds the set's mini- 
mum senSitJvity IhrBShc^. 

If you don't mind waiting a long 
time for the hunteis to anive, and are 
prepared lo be the object of their out- 
rage, combine short transrhissions 
with varying power. This gimmick was 
used a few years ago at a convention 
hunt in San Diego, where expensive 
prizes were at stake. The hider, want- 
ing to separate the skilled hunters 
from the lucky ones, set up the T to 
cycle on and off every half second, 
with each transmission at a different 
power level, randomly selected. 

Not to he outdone, John iWoore 
NJ7E built a microprocessor-based 
controller for an all-day hunt in the 
Ptxjenix area last fall. His fox-box gen- 
erated random tfBnsmission ler^gihs, 
random time between transmissions, 
and random power levels. 

Antler Antics 

If rules allow it, use creativity in 
your antenna system. Honzontal sig- 
nal polarization Is tough on hunters 
with dopplers or Dtf>er sets with verti- 
cal whips. When you hunt a cross-po 
larized X the direct signal is attenuat- 
ed , while bounces from buitdings and 
terrain features tend to stand out, With 
any luck, the contestants will spend 
valuable time chasing re fleet br^. 

Every so often, a foK uses circular 
polarization. Depending on the terrain, 
it can confound the hunters^ Gel out 
the OSCAR antennas and try it? 

If you have unlimited real estate 
aval lab ie at the hiding site, try a setup 
like the one In Photo A it shot lots of 
signal down ihe canyon, where it was 
several miles to the closest road. But it 
gave very litlie signal to the rear, 
where the road came within only a few 
hundred yarcte. 

How about a moving antenna*? Pe- 
ter Ernster WA6TQQ adapted a motor- 
ized camera pan-tilt mount to slowly 
change the polarization of his yagi 
from vertical to horizontal and back 
a^in, giving a very interesting effect, 
Wes Prinlz KA3DSE made a similar 
setup us*r>g a wirKlshield wiper motor. 

Other hiders rotate their beams in 
azimuth, to "light up" the nearby hills In 
various directions. If you're with the T, 
you can turn the antenna manually. 
For an unattended setup, add a moiof. 
as shown in Photo B. Use a mecha- 
nism tliai sweeps the beam Jike an os- 
cillating fan instead of making it go in 
circles, so you don't need slip rings in 
the coax line. The antenna should 

St, 1992 




Photo A. Gary H<^ubek WBSGCT ^Jtctured) and Tony Lemnd KA9WGO assem- 
bled this tS' iong drcut^rfy potanzed b^m with a 6' x 6' scr&ea mUectOf m a 
wiidemess park for a Fulterton Radio Club T-hunt it put his Of RF af the far end 
of the canyon, but very titila signat si the road just behind it. 



move sfowly so that the effect is not 
too obvious- 

Slay tuned for more dastardly 1**!- 
Ing ideas in future columns. Let's also 
hear at>out what you have hidden arxl 
hunted. Send stones of your local fox- 
hunts to the address above. Photos 
are welcome, too. 

Convention Fun 

You say there are no T-hunls in 
your area, and you hiave never had a 
chance Jo lay eyes on any RDF gear 
or see how huntirg is done? Consider 
coming to the ARRL National Conven- 
tion, August 20-23, near Los Angeies 
internalionai Airport. Not only Is T- 
hunting on the technical program 
agenda, but there will be an abun- 
dance Of tiitnts, put on as offk^l con- 
ventiofi activities by the Fuilerton Ra- 
dio Club. 

Don'l be surprised if you see 
hunters "sniffing"* in the aisles. They 
wilt be seeking the miniature fox-box- 
es scattered throughout the conven- 
tion center tf you find one of the offi- 



cial T's, you1l win a nice trophy to Im- 
press Ihe hams back home. Portable 
RDF gear will be useful fof this pur- 
suit, but not mandatory. You might get 
liKTlcy and find a T with just your 2 me- 
ter t^ndheld, using the "tjody shield* 
technique. 

There may be a few unofficial sig- 
nals to hunt, too. The T hunters of 
Southern California will probably bring 
all their toys, including foxes of all 
shapes and sizes. 

For intrepid do-or-die mobite T- 
hunters, there wfl t^e a no-boundaries 
Southern California style mobile hunt 
on Sunday, with some very worthwhile 
prizes up for grabs. So bring ali your 
gear and plan on a weekend of RDF 
fun. If you're Still a T-hunt wannabe, 
come out to the start point and see all 
the neat gear \he hunters have put to^ 
geiher. 

irs unfortunate thai only a few ham 
conventions each year offer RDF con- 
testing as part of the officjai program. 
If you're on the planning committee for 
a hamfest of convenUon, why not add 







^'^■ 






Vfes^^ 









Photo B. Kevm Kefty N6QAB bt/tft this motorized quad when he put on a k>f^'dis* 
tance hunt in the Atbaquerque area. It automaiicalfy turned back and forth to vary 
the signal reflections from the nearby hilts. 



-.^sawpi^ri'i 



i^i 





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a T-hunl as a change of pace? tf you 
do, be sure lo let me know at leas! 
three months in advance so I can 
mention it in tH% colymrL 

ASurpHseonSfx 

It isn't long t>efore every new ham 
discovers that our t>and aJfocations are 
nol exclusive. We dodge foreign 
broadcasters on 40 meters. On 70 
centimeters, we live with oil well loca- 
tors, shipboard radars, and wind profil- 
ers. The 902-928 MHz band is a 
wasteland because of vehicle locating 
systems, computer networks, and 
home video links, with more new gad- 
gets to come. 

One barvf that has remained rela^ 
IJv^V free of non-fiam ORM is 6 me* 
ters. For a few days out of the year 
there are radio fireworks there, every- 
thing from £ arxl F layer openings to 
tropo, auroral and meteor contacts. 
The rest of the time, its a quiet bit oi 
spectrum, perfect for locaJ QGOs and 
foxhunting. 

The Soul hern Caltfomia Six Meter 
Club (SC6MC) has sponsored a 
monthly T-hunt ori 50.3 MHz FM for 
five years, On the momirg of the IVlay 
2nd hunt, ttic Nder and hunters were 



Photo C. The mititary has used low- 
band VHF freQueodes for many yeam, 
so there is a variety of surplus RDF 
equipment avBil^bfe. This foop'$en$& 
ynif works ftne few T-hunUng on 6 me- 
ters with no modificatioris. 



astonished to find their radios alive 
with military communications. The Cal- 
jfomia NationaJ Guard had set up shop 
on numerous frequencies, including 
50.3, as guardsmen patrolled the 
streets of Los Angeles. 

Hider George Stokes WT6U was 
20 miles from the nearest guardsmen, 
but why take any risks? The group 
qufckly decided not to hold the 6 meter 
hunt. 

Fortunately, WT6U had a 2 meter 
mobile rig with hfm. There was a quick 
QSY to 146.565 MHz. None of the 
hunters had brought mobile RDF 
equipment along tor 2 meters, so ev- 
eryone used their handhelds with ei- 
ther their 6 meter untuned loops or 
body shielding. Eventual ly. alt teams 
found George. 

The military has used tow~band 
VHF for commynicalions links for 
dozens of years. Radios range Irom 
30 to 88 W Hz, but communicatkHis of- 
Fn^fs iisually take patns lo avoid using 
active TV channels and the 6 meter 
ham band within U.S. boundaries in 
peacetime. This was an exception, but 
there were no complaints forthcoming 
from the hams. 

A benefit of military access to this 
part of the spectrum is sorplus equip- 
ment. Besides radio sets, you can find 
ready-to-hunt RDF equipment, such 
as the loop shown in Photo C. Several 
SC6MC memtjers hunt with similaf an* 
tennas. One source is Fair Radio 
Sales. 1016 E. Eureka, RO. Box 11ES. 
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50 73 AmatQur Radio Today * August, 1 992 




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Qrp 



Nuftibdf t4 ort your Feedback Qmd 



Mi(^3el Bryce W88VG£ 
2225 MByilowBr NW 
Massiibn OH 44646 

What's a QRP? 

Dayton was a washout Ihis year, Real- 
ly! The weather was jyst rotten with rain 
on and off Friday. The weather Saturday 
proved to be even wetter, but wtth temper- 
atures hovering around 40 degrees. Sun- 
day i! haHecIt There were no happy 
campers in the Dayton Hamventron flea 
rr>ari^el this year. 

inside ti^ main trndcing, people were 
jusi on top of each other, t cotid net help 
txit overtiear a conversation between two 
othef hams as we were pushed and 
shoved alpng in tfie How. They were talk- 
mg about OR P. My head spun around 
when one guy said, "This QRP soimds in- 
teresting. I wonder how much a QRP is 
and where can t find one." To this his bud- 
dy replied, "What s a QRP?- 

What's a QRP? How do I get one? 
Hqw much do they cost? 

After all the artfdes published on QRP 
opera I bn by myself and others, it seems 
hard 1o believe there are people who don'i 
know what ORP is. But whkat reafly frosled 
the cake was my wtfe asking me what a 
QRP is. 

I tned to expTain to tier alxxjl the Intef- 
nabo^al "Q* signals, and ttiat if you send 
■QRP' wilh a questtofi mark it means 
you're asking the other guy to reduce his 



Low Power Operation 



Iransmiller power. And that sending 
"QRP^ without Ihe Qiiesnion mark mearts 
you have already reduced your transmit 
power. She replied, "Reduce it from what 
to what?" Weli, she had me there* 

There seems to bs a very overlooked 
rule and regulatton regarding transmit 
power of an amateur radio station. Part 
97.67, Section 6. in a nutshell it says to 
use the mifiimum amount of transmitter 
power fiecessary to carry out the desired 
communications. This area becomes a 
huge trouble spol. 

You plop down some money, open up 
tfie box and remove your new radio. Plug 
in an antenna and miciophone and you're 
on the air with about 100 watts of RR If 
you're talking to Joe Ham, and you are 
both running 100 watts, and have a 40 
over 3-9 signal, you more ttian Fike^y have 
just violated pan 97.67, No tag dea(. The 
feds have better things to do Ihan run 
around with Bird Thrultne^ wattmeters 
checking on output power. (Although, I hey 
did do a survey on operating power 
awhife back.) As f told her, ft becomes 
very muddy water as to how low you can 
reduce power to mafntain "desired com- 
munications." JusI what is *desired oom- 
munk^tions'? Would an S-meter reading 
o* 7 t;e "desired communications'? How 
about an S-meter reading of nothing. tHjt 
you can hear and understand everything 
Joe Ham Is saying? There are too many 
ques^HXis for any one person to be able lo 



say wtien to reduce power. For the most 
part, if the transceiver youVe running can 
produce 100 watts, 100 watts is what 
you'tl be running it at. In some 
transceivers. reducif>g RF output throws 
trar^smftter effkiefcy in ttie dumpster. 

If s tike tt>e guy with the amplifier sitting 
next to the transceiver. 1 on^ use it wh&i 
I need 1* says Randy as he reads the log 
book by I he glow of a pair of 3-&00ZS, 
Bight! The same thinking goes with 
adding a turbo charger to a V8 engine. 
"Just In case I need it" Of course you'll 
use It. That's why you purchased the am- 
plifier to begin with, to use It. No one is 
going to pay for an amplifier and never 
use it. 

Af^er I expEained all of Ihis to her. she 
still wanted to know whai a QRP is. So. \ 
had !o put the definition of a QRP Inlo 
something she could understand. What 
better way ttian to let tier in on some of 
the adion on 20 meters phone. 

I fired up my trusty Argonaul 509 and 
started tuning around looking for OX, J 
find DX by listening lor the pife-ups. 
Works every lime. I found a huge pite-up 
right dead in the middle of the advanced 
band segment. Seemed like a volcano 
erupted a week or so ago and haft a 
dozen crazed DXers (What's a DXer? 
Next lesson.) flew in by helicopter to play 
radio. 

The OX station was Just working the 
loudest stations, in no particular order, I 
called, called some more, and called 
again, i tuned up higher, luned down tow- 
er, increased the mike gain, towered the 
mike gain, l checked tfie beam heading, 
moved the beam a btt one way. ttien the 
other way. Went outside and ched^ed if 
the beam was still up on the tower. I 



checked the antenna connectors, called 
again, called some more, I checked the 
SWRf yes, rt was 1:1.3. Whoa, way too 
high. Out came the antenna tuner, SWR 
now 1:1, Called some more, A second trip 
outside to be sure 1 hadnt cut ttie feed 
line with the lawn mower. J called again. I 
started lo scream inio the microphone. 
What's wfofvg with ihat guy? Can't you 
hear me calling you wllh my 2 watts? 
WhatsamatteiyouT My wife then asked me 
why I did not turn on the ttig radio" like 
the other people. What» and ruin all my 
fun? This was a Kodak moment. 

After working 47,489 contacts, the DX 
station went QRT, leaving me out of his 
log book. 

A State of Mind 

So wtiat Is a QRP? QRP is a slate of 
mlfKJ. ft's trying to make eontaci with an- 
other station using the least amount of RF 
power^ It's a way of kK3king at ttifvgs from 
a slightty dif erent angle. 

For the record, QBP is offidalfy recog- 
f^fzed by the QRP ARC) as 5 walls CW 
RF output power and 1 watts PEP output 
for SSB work, regardless of the input 
power Milliwatling. or the older QRPp 
temi, is power under 1 watt RF output. 

Look for QRP operators on the follow- 
ing CW frequencies: 3560, 7040. 14,060. 
21p060p and 28,060. Check too on 7030 
and 706O for DX QRP operators. Look for 
fodhardy QRP SSB operalors on 3985, 
7285. 14,285 and 28.885. 

How much does a QRP cost? Any- 
where from the price ol a Firetail trans- 
mitter all the way up to an Argonatd H and 
evefyttvng in ttetween the two. 

ORP: A slate of mind in doing more 
with less power. 



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Above & beyond 

VHF and Above Operation 



a L Houghton WB6iGP 
San Diego Micfov^ve Group 
6345 Badger Lake 
San Diego CA 92119 

Using Surplus Parts 

This month I will cover a few ideas 
developed by obtaining Items Irom the 
surplus electronics market. There are 
fTTany benefSs lo using items from sur- 
plus but. as in all purchases, you must 
make the final deterniinatbn as to jtjsl 
what is a wise purchase. Remen^ber, 
consumer desire for acquisition must 
be bridled wtth a few responsitwirties in 
making a good choice. Don't be tempt- 
td 10 Starl a new business venture fust 
because you've (ourxj a large quantity 
of left-handed widgets; evaluate the 
Hem first. What might seem too good 
to be tme on the surface might be lots 
Of wofK underneath. Don't count sur- 
plus Items out, but do use normal 
good judgement. Sometimes I even ig- 
nore my own advice and buy the en- 
tire lot, only to discover later that it 
was not such a hot deal, i stress buy 
one as a disposable education evalua- 
tion, and ft it is proved out — by your- 
self or someone you know — then rec- 
ommend the product. In the same 
light, don't take on a project loo ambi- 
tious and expensive — it's a hotiby and 
should be for enjoyment, 

\ remember a good friend who built 
an SSB transceiver and purchased all 
components right (rom the parts tjst 
specifications in the article. The total 
cost incurred was excessive; he could 
have saved a very large chunk of cash 
by using surplus or swap-meet substi- 
tutes for specified items. Unfortunate- 
ty, this project did not have a happy 
ending. He installed numerous shorted 
cables wittiout verification and assem- 
bled the entire unit without step-by- 
step testing. There were so rnany dif- 
ferent troubfes that il t^ecame an insur* 
mountable repair task to make it worK 
and it ultimatety becaine a source Of 
components for other projects. A very 
expensive lesson tn home const njc- 
tion. 

I have made my own mistakes and 
hope that my description of them wiEl 
save you from making the same ones. 

Never Risk "The Farm" 

Projects are supposed to save you 
mooey. not become a sink hole into 
which you pour cash reserves. Don't 
take on a project that is too ambitious 
or complex wittx>ul seeking advice or 
help from someone who is experi- 
enced fn large constryction pfojects 
and can offer assistance. This will 
save you money in the k>ng run. 

The most important step in any pro- 
ject m to make a long-range plan and 
set goats for aspects of Ihe hobby you 
would like to explore. Look at several 
different publications tor (nformation 
on Items to construct and use them as 



a guide to form a shopping list of items 
needed to reach modest goals. Then 
lake time to fill the shopping list, look- 
ing ai swap meets. If you slowly gath- 
er items by bargain hunting, the cost 
of a project can be significantly re- 
duced. Build up a junk ix)x of usable 
components in the general parts cate- 
gory. Standard value resistors, capaci- 
tors and such can he removed from 
junk circuit PC boards at very little 
cost, and can stock a good junk box. 
Time IS exper>ded here, but at quite a 
savings. You may say it takes too 
much time to unsokjer components in 
a salvage operatkin. Well let me tell 
you a iitUe secret — a PC board can be 
mass unsoldered by several opera- 
tions. 

On© method that 1 do not recom- 
mend is the hot peanut oil technique^ 
This operation can t>e quite unsafe be- 
cause the oli is heated to soider-melt- 
ing temperatures and can splatter dur- 
ing the unsoldering operation. Very 
unsafe. A simple alternative that can 
be used quite easily and safely Is the 
hoi air btower This blower is the same 
tool that is sold In most weii- stocked 
liardware stores to blister paint tor re- 
moval. The blower looks much like a 
ladies' hair drier, except that 11 can 
reach sofderHt>eltin9 temperatures in a 
few minutes of l[x?ard heating, I have 
successfully removed 40- pin chips 
with this technique and saved the chip 
intact. 

However, I have had difficulties with 
some plastic parts because they tend 
to defomn in the heating process. I had 
trouble with plastic coil forms for small 
IF transformers because they required 
a little coaxing after the solder was 
molten. They were a light fit and this 
contributed to the coils' demise be- 
cause of the pressure needed to ex- 
tract them after the solder was molten, 

I usually keep the hot air blower 
about a inch from the region I am 
heating. In about two to three minutes 
Itie parts will just fall off. When tt^y 
are loose, just tap the back of the 
boaid and the parts will drop in front of 
the PC board. 

Keep the blower on the board to re- 
tain heating and move to the next area 
to be unsoldered- If this region is adja- 
cent to the first it is already preheated 
and component removal Is almost 
ready in 10 to 20 seconds. I have re- 
moved all components from a PC 
board that measured 15 by 20 inches 
in about 15 minutes of relatively easy 

TWOtIv. 

CMOS devices and other chips can 
be removed with a small variation. 
Some wilt drop off, but t prefer to place 
a small heat sink on top of the chip, 
using a pair of gas pliers. When the 
chip is ready to be pulled off. don't 
rush the operation; wait a few seconds 
after the point where the solder will 
permit the chip's removal. These extra 



Pan^&ontc Ku Band 
Bk»Gk Converter 
11.7 -12^ GHz 




2.SdB NF 



RF A ' 
IN ll 



2 Stage GaAS-FET 
Amptjfter 



Mix^r 



DRO Local 
Oscillator 



DC 

to F/S 



tF 
Out 



^ 



Bias 



DC 
Power 



Power Supply 
PC Board #2 



d- 



PC Board #1 



DC 
Power 



IF Amp 
|IN 



4 Staod GaAS-FET IF Amf? 
800 MHx- 1.5 GHz 

PC Board #3 



Figure 1. Ku Dand converter 



seconds will allow removal of excess 
solder on the top of the board that 
might cting to the top of the chip's pin 
after premature pin removal. If you 
wait just a little, the pins look factory- 
fresh when the part is removed. Parts 
so removed can be sorted, and you 
will be amazed how Fast your parts 
junk t>ox will build up, saving on the 
cost of future projects- 

Eventually some key Items have to 
t>e purchased for any construction pro- 
ject, but try to find these parts in a 
careful search. Sometimes a friend 
might have that part and that's a swap 
In the mailing. I constructed a receiver 
for HP when I was given my first 
Collins l^echanlcal Filter (a long time 
ago). Today my interests are in the mi- 
crowave spectrum and as such I con- 
stantly lool^ at the surplus market for 
items that can be re -used to advan- 
tage on our higher frequency bands. 
Anything of value from 30 MHz up can 
find a new home and be put lo good 
use. 

An example ot a surplus item that is 
starting to ftlter clown to dealers is the 
12 GHz (Ku Band) satellite downcon- 
vener. The reason they are available 
in surplus is their higher noise figure, 
something running from 2 to 3 dB be- 
ing typical. The nominal cost for a 
used converter head is under $1 5. You 
might say, what can I do with one? 
Weil, disassembly of a unit will give 
you three printed circuit PC boards 
loaded with components^ One board 
(under a casl-metal cover) contains a 
12 GHz RF amplifier (hwo- stage GaAs- 
FET), a single diode mixer at mi- 
crowave. arHi a Dielectric Resonant 
Oscillator (DRO). The second PC 
board is the power supply for the am* 
pitfters, and the third PC board is the 
output IF ampliner Usually this amplifi- 
er is a foyr-stage unit capable of 30 
dB of gam from 800 to 2000 MHz, TWe 
noise figure of this amplifier must be 
quite good to retain the downconvert- 
er's total notse figure and function (I 



believe it to be in the 1.5 to 2 dB 
range). 

Now if you separate the IF amplifier 
you have an excellent RF preamp with 
high gain for varied applications as it 
sits. 

All you have (o do Is add coax coiv 
nectors and connect a power sijpply 
(12 volts DC) to finish it. The IF ampB* 
tier norma riy covers the 900 to 1500 
MHz range and will function slightly 
lower and quite a bit higher in f fluen- 
cy from its design frequency. This can 
make a good I ow^ noise weather satel- 
lite RF amplifier, 1691 MHz or even a 
1296 MHz RF amp. Kerry N61ZW and 
I are even thinking about using these 
for a first IF for SSB operation to re* 
move our mix products for microwave 
operation. Considering the cost of 
about $5, and the three PC boards in 
the original unit, this is quite a bargaia 

Even the junk enclosure that previ* 
ousty was discarded can be recycled 
as scrap aluminum. The remain irg RF 
amplifier (12 GHz) can be cut away 
from the DRO oscillator and by attach- 
ing coax connectors and some shim 
brass to form a box erYctosure for the 
amplifier you can render this unit us- 
able. Further modifications are possi- 
ble if you remove the matching stubs 
on the amplifier's stripline and retest 
the unit with the drive on 10 GHz. It is 
possible to retune the amplifier down 
to the 10 GHz amateur band with 
good results, 

Retuning is done by vmtching gain 
and applying snowf lakes {very small 
copper scraps Super-Glued to a tooth- 
frick). Moving the toothpick tuning tool 
will ir^dicate where to attach snowf lake 
bi-ls of tuning copper Solder them 
down to tfie stripfine. watching for gain 
increases. 

They will work just laying on the 
Urm during test procedures. Other cop- 
per bits are added to peak the amplifi- 
er as adjustment progresses. 

As you near final adjustment, some 
of the first copper snowf lakes might 



58 73 Amateur Radio Today * August, 1 BBZ 




Photo A. An exampie of Ku band (i2 GHz) block converters, which contain many 
usable PC boards. 



have to be re^a ^justed slightly to re^ 
move interaction. When you are sails- 
Bed with what gain you have obtained; 
start soldering the snowHakes in place 
one at a time. 

This pmcess can be tedious but is 
no more compfex than building an am- 
pntier from scratch. The time required 
is about the same to construct a new 
unit or modify an existing unll. The 
main benefit from surplus parts is the 
low cost. 

Remember that you are dealing 
Wfth static-sensitive devices and as 
such use a static-free work station 
along with a tempefature-controlted 
low voltage soldering iron. Wrisl-static 
grounding straps tied to a work bench 
grounding assembfy/modification sta- 
tion will help prevent device damage. 
Make sure all the grounding is good 
and that your soldering iron is in the 
common g founding loop with your 
work piece. I use a large scrap copper 
plate for my common work surface for 
nrxjdificatJon or assembly. The solder- 
ing iron and all worit tools are tied in 
common to ihts copper plate. I am lied 
into the plate with a low current con- 
ductive high resistance safety wrist 
strap. Direct connection is not neces- 
sary. I touch the p^ate before any pick- 
up Of other pans (GaAsFET) place- 
ment to remove possible static 
charges. They (static. 5 to 6 volts) can 
destroy your FET. if you have any diffl- 
cullies working with FETs, start out 
with low-cost ones or surplus devices 
until you feel comfortable working with 
them. 

The point to make here Is that cost 
can be reduced with a reasonable 



amount of involvement on your part. 
Don't be disappointed if some of your 
first projects don't turn out well. In the 
beginning we all fail at first but wtth a 
little persistence arxJ application most 
projects char^ge from a doorstop into 
something usable. If you get into diffi- 
culty, drop me a line and I will try to 
help you out and get your project 
working. In one respect I went off the 
deep end long ago in that 1 have set 
up a good test and calibration berK^h 
able to work on most anything, more 
lest equipment than operating ama- 
teur equipment* 

Mall Box 

Ed Barbacow K3ZCY from Carmi- 
chaelSp Pennsylvania, writes that he 
has just obtained a 3/4 -40 tap. Big 
deal, you say? You bet it Isl That is the 
^'custom special" needed if anyone 
wants to use a 416 vahety microwave 
lube. Thts tube is capable of several 
watts of power on bands up to 5 GHz, 
risking it quite good news. Ed is offer- 
ing to help others out with nuts tapped 
for this 3/4 -40 thread to use with the 
tube in an amplifier. This was a big 
stumblfng block tn previous years. 
Drop Ed a line at 330 Ceyton Rd,, 
Cannichaels PA 15320-1354. Also, Ed 
is looking for a waveguide for 5.6 
GHz. He needs a straight section of 
Wr-137 (about 7 to 10 inches long, 
with ftanges). He is experimenting with 
a waveguide filter for 5.6 GHz. 

Al Berry N25W of Panama City 
Beach. Florida, inquires if the CW IDer 
is still available, and if so, is the cost 
still Sia.50? Yes it is available, and the 
cost is the same. That is. as long as J 



strll have surplus EPROMS available 
to program. That is what helps to hold 
down kit cost. Other kits thai I oftered 
have not fared so well, such as the 30 
MHz transceiver for 10 GHz Solfans 
(Solfan special). The IF chip (a TDA- 
7000 from Signelics) is becomfng hard 
to get. and cun-entfy I am out oJ stock. 
I will try to rectify this kit or redesign it 
with arx}ther ch^p type. 

Larry Chhsman K90XX reports that 
he rtow wishes he'd bought a fife sub- 
schption to 73. Since HR fofded. He 
slates that CO has gone dovmhill ever 
since they dropped the surplus con- 
version/VHF RTTY and other experi- 
mental stuff from the magazine. Larry 
said that's why he canceled his sub- 
scription. One question he asked con- 
cerns the Stereo Solfans alarm units 
for 10 GHz. He wonders about thejr 
specific applications. Can they be 
used with a standard 30 MHz IF strip? 
The answer lo your question is yes, 
they can, but you do not need both de- 
tectors for WBFM operation. 

The alarm application needed the 
dual detectors which operated in 
stereo to give additional info mra lion to 
the alarm sensors. The benefits of du- 
aJ detectors versus single detectors is 
that dual units can delect movement 
and determine if Ihe object Is ap* 
preaching the detector or moving 
away from the unit, The alarm unit can 
be set to report on movement towards 
the unit only and Ignore movement 
away from the unit. This Is one modifi- 
cation to reduce unnecessary alarms. 
Newer units use both stereo detection 
and an optical scan {IR). Ttie unit can 
be set up to require both optical and 



microwave return to verify actual 
movement. This prevents false 
alanns. 

Larry states that he spent lots of 
time in San Dtego and remembers the 
many different surplus electronics 
dealers In SD from his service days in 
the "60. He spent many hours brows- 
ing and picking up goodies then. Now 
his home town doesn't have much 
more than Radio Shack and hamfest 
flea markets — not much for tt>e experi- 
menter. Well, that's Just the reason 
why flry to pu! tog either modest-priced 
Items that f run into from time to 
time— to help out on some of the pro- 
jects that I describe in the column. I 
call these items the key parts: in the 
microwave spectrum J have come to 
call them -UNOBTAINIUM" due to the 
difiiculty in procuring them at reason- 
at>le cost. There are many different 
mail order houses and selections lo 
n^ke even in San Diego. 1 usually find 
a new one sprouting up every so of- 
ten, that helps to keep up on bargains. 

As fong as they're small, my wife 
will let me keep my newest acquisi- 
tions. Because newer hams coming 
online are anxk>us to get started. Ihey 
seem to have a hard time finding bar- 
gains without getting sold a bill of 
goods. There are lots of dealers out 
there, but some ck^nt advertise all the 
time. 

Next month f will cover a surplus 
power amplifier ^or 10 GHz that was 
available from Halted Specfalties, As 
always, I will try to answer your ques- 
tions on microwave and related activi- 
ties. Please send an SASE for a 
prompt reply 73. Chuck WB6IGR 



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Numbef 16 on you/ Feedback card 



Marc /. Leavey. M.D., WA3AJR 
6 Jenny Lane 
Baltimore MD 2^208 

The ASR'33 

Witn all ihG high-lect) talk tties@ 
days, we often lose sight of the fact 
that, for many fiams. fancy ccmputors 
and the like remain an unattainable 
goal for a variety of reasons, This hob- 
by of ours continues to encompass a 
wide range ol preferences and direc- 
Ijons. Several letters this month illus- 
trate ft>& case well 

Eugene *Uac' McAleer N9DLIW o( 
Addison, lllino^, responded lo my com- 
menl aliudtng to the Old ASR-33 sitting 
in my basement that I have trouble pad- 
irtg with. He relates being "in the same 
predicamsnt here. My '33' was donated 
by a lellow ham who saved it from the 
junk yard tor me. It is like the day it was 
buM. Act^ial^v. 1 woyld like to use it bul 
rwed some information lor a converter 
for 60 and 100 wpm Baudot to tOO 
baud ASCII for the machine. The only 
Input seems to be a phorw line. Pow- 
ered up. il types j^t fine. 

"So hopefully you can supply me 
with some information or tefi me where I 



Amateur Radio Teletype 

can obtain some. I am an avid RTTY art 
fan and have a collection of some 1-400 
pix. i presently run a hAodel 23 for ptx 
hard copy along with tt>e glass TTY IBM 
compattote. Our ham dub runs a VHF 
RTTY repeater with a great deai of ac- 
livfty on It, including a pix nel one night 
a week * 

Well, first off, Baudot to ASCII con- 
version was a hoi topic In the early -to 
mid-1970s, before the personal com- 
puter revolution took off Several such 
schemes were published here in the 
pages of 73 during those days, and a 
search of back issues lums up many 
solutions^ I have sent a list of some 
such solutions to Mac. H there is 
enough interest among the readership. 
I would be happy to review some of the 
techniques here. Alternatively, just 
hooking the ASR-33 to the serial port 
on the computer, with some suitable 
programming, might be enough to 
nmke the Wmg rim, without having 1o 
re- invent the wheel* I am sure ^meof>e 
out there ts still dofng this, and will 
share his or her lechnjque wlh us. 

The o^her topic you mentioned. Mac, 
RTTY art. was one near and dear to my 
hearl many years ago. I even went so 



Updates 



Number 25 on your Feedback card 



VE3CYC*S WIRE BEAM 

See the above articte in the June '92 issue of 73, page 18. In the 
bandswilch diagram (Figure 9), the switching parts (armatures) are 
drawn the wrong way. They should be connected to the row of center 
connections instead (see the corrected Figure), 



If I mu. 



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tfons. 

60 73 Amateur Radio Today - August, 1 992 



far as Eo translate one or two pictiires 
onto an automated Selectric typewrfter I 
used at one summer job. with pauses 
built into, shall we say, critical areas. At 
one time, samples of RTTY art were 
featured here In ^^BTTY Loop," Including 
the annual contest. Having heard noth- 
ing from that quarter in many years, I 
assumed thai such activities were 
passe. If you or others wrth intefesbng 
or unusual works of RTTY aft would like 
to forward them here. I would tie h^)py 
to consider them lof inclusion in an up- 
coming column. 

DesqView 

Accelerating at Warp 8 from the vln- 
tage to the vanguard, I received a letter 
from Rick Ar^adon WA8RXI of Taylor, 
Michigan, who is looking to run what 
may t>e ttie supreme RTTY computer 
station. He says he is "seriously con- 
templating acquirir^g OesqView to ruh 
three or maybe four programs concur- 
rently. What I essentially want to do is 
be atile to switch between logging, a 
QSL manager/database^ 2 meter pack- 
el and HF digital modes, wilhout losing 
a beat monFtoring packet ai the same 
time as holding a digital QSO (RTTY. 
ASCII, AMTOR. etc.) on the HF rig. I 
believe with the equipnr^nt i have I can 
accomplish (his using DesqV«ew. 

"The equipment here includes a 
Kenwood TS-830S, Kenwood TR- 
7400A, AEA PK-232MBX, and a 386SX 
computer running MSDOS 5.0, without 
Windows. 

"Now, I guess my major question is, 
has anyone successfully modified a PK- 
232 eiltier by hant^are or sofhvare to 
make it act as a dual-port modem? Or« 
would it be better for me to add the 
PCB-es or a similar board for VHF 
packet only to my system? Or, do you 
know ol a system thai will aHow me to 
multitask amateur radio programs with- 
out going to a program like DesqView?'* 

Whevifl "Riat is a tall order, Rk:k. Firsi 
off. J donM believe there is any way to 
make the PK'2^ a dual- port machine. 
There ts too much shared circuitry, 
wfien I look at the book, to be able to 
accomplish this with massive modrTica- 
lion. The Kantronics series of interfaces 
do incorporate duaf-porl design, to my 
knowledge, and they may well have 
served you better in this quests Allerna- 
tJvely, yoti may be able to add anottier 
terminal unit, such as a dedicated 
board In tfie computer, to add the sec- 
ond channel capability. 

As to the multitasking, you have sev- 
eraF choices. A limiting factor may be, 
however, the computer you are running. 
You will need sufficient memory to allow 
all those programs to run unrestricted, 
and using several COM ports at once* 
such as may be required if monitoring 
pacicet and sending on HF RTTY, might 
cause some interrupl conflicts. 
DesqView may well be at3ie to accom- 
plish the task. From what I have read of 
this program, it seems to be able to ro- 
bustly mix a variety of programs in a 
multitasking environment. Windows 3.1 
is a tot healthier than lis predecessor, 
and with adequate memory, running in 
386 enhanced mode, it may do as weil 



also. Then there's oa^. Just starting to 
appear on dealers' shelves^ reviews of 
OS/2 indicate that this might be just 
what you're looking for You will need 
prenly of memory and hard disk space. 
Ihough, 

Somehow. I think that among our 
readership there is someone who has 
already tKaved Ihe&e waters, and 1 k^ok 
fon/irard to receiving reports of these ac- 
complished ej<piorations. If received, I 
witJ pass them ak>r>g in future columns 
for the benefit of all, 

Howard Halperin M7ETP of Phoenix, 
Arizona, is looiting to hook up his Ken- 
wood TS-430S transceiver, with a PS- 
430 power supply, SP-430 speaker, and 
AT-250 antenna tuner on RTTY. His 
questKtn, *How?" The answer, "simptef 

As we have eiaboraled over the past 
few months, all you need is an interface 
arxj tenninai, This can vary from one of 
the older tnierfaces. such as the ST-6 
popular many years back, to one of the 
new muitimode controllers. Ask around 
the Phoenix area; i am sure that there 
wilt be those to hold your hand while 
you hook up the equipment. Who 
knows, maybe a reader of this coiumn 
in your area will contact you, firsU 

A few months ago. you all pointed 
out the new source for old Micro log 
products. fWow. here's a note from A. H. 
"Monty™ fVtunro M0OSH. who is ISO 
(that's In Search Of, tor those of you 
who don't read personal ads) another 
old unit. He says that he is Interested 
in RTTY/AMTOR but not packet, and 
the interlace 1 can put on my C-64 to 
use AMTOR, 1 have no info about who 
manufactures ttie CP-t and MBA-TOR 
or a unit like il." I remember ads for 
these units, but canrxjt put my finger on 
them at the moment. Reader input re- 
garding tKJth availability and usabiiity of 
these C-64 RTTY devices is solicited. 

Several of you have asked about the 
availability of the Color Computer pro- 
grams offered in ''RTTY Loop" several 
years ago. I am $&rty to reporl thai my 
Color Computer has bitten the dusi* 
and I am no tonger able to provide pro- 
grams for that system. The programs 
descnbed aro availabte both on Com- 
puServe and Delphi, in the amateur ra- 
dio and color computer special interest 
groups. If you do not have access to ei- 
ther service^ but have a friend who 
does, the programs can be downloaded 
10 any computer, then you call your 
friend's computer with your CoCo snii 
downtoad from there. You don t have to 
have a Color Computer to p«ck up the 
programs, only to run Ihem! After all, 
neither CompuServe nor Delphi use 
Color Computers as mainframes. If you 
still dohl understand, drop me a note, 
with a self-addressed, stamped enve- 
lope, or buzz me on one of the online 
services mentioned at I he end of the 
column, and I'll explain it again, st^ by 
step. 

More goodies next month. witTt more 
of your lettefS. and other items of inter- 
est to the distal ham. Meanwhile, com- 
municallon is invited by letter, or via 
CompuServe (ppn 75036,2501), Delphi 
(userrame MARCWA3AJR), or America 
Online (screen name MarcWA3AJR) 



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Packet & computers 



card et radio and liie Iniemet 



Jeff Sfoman N7EW0 
c/o 73 Amateur Radio Today 
70 Route 202 North 
Peterborough, NH 03458 

Welcome lo "Packet & Computers; 
73's new monthly packet radio col- 
umn. Each month I'll lake a look at the 
hardware, software, and networks of 
amateur packet radio. This column is 
designed for two sets of readers: the 
end user of the network, and the 
sysop. It is my intentfon to provide 
useful ir^torniaiion to both, but in order 
lo aocomplish this 1 ne^ to know what 
you want to see here. Let me kTK>w 
what you l^e arxj don't likt. and more 
impoTtantly. how I cart make things 
better. The packet radio commiinity is 
diverse, and this column wilt reflect 
thai. 

More Than Mail 

Most packet users never get be- 
yond reading and sending malt and 
buHetins, but there's more out there on 
the network. Information, stored on 
database servers, can be accessed 
irom your local PB6S, and 3c^:€ss to 
Ihe Internet — a huge network of insti- 
lulional, government, and industry 
computers— is also available. 

The White Pages 

Don't know the home PBBS of a 
ham you war^t to send mail lo? Most 
PBBSs will let you took \\ up m the 
White Pages. There are two ways to 
use this servfce. Rrst. if the hann you 
want to know about Is known by the 
PBBS, you can ask directly (on a 
WSRLt PBBS, others may vary): '1 
(call)," where (call) Is the callsign of 
the ham whose address is in question. 
On the other hand, if you are asking, 
the ham is probably not local so ask- 
ing the PBBS won't do much good. 

Still, there is a way to find out. You 
can yse the White Pages (WP) sender 
located at AD8I. This is a national reg- 
istry of home PBBSs that probably has 
the information you need. To get the 
information, you simply send a spe- 
clatly formatled mail message to 
WP^ADSI. The commands on a 
W0RLf PBBS are like this (a carriage 
return follows each command): 

SPWP@ADSI: 

(SP is for Send Pfivate) 

QUERY This is the subject line of the 
message. 

(catl) This is the call ol the ham who 
you are interested tn. It is tf^ first 
line of massage lexL 

(CONTFIOUZ} This ends the mes- 
sage. 

The query will be answered within a 
couple of days by return mail. 



Eteetronic Cattbook — 
REQQTH@WA40NG 

Buck master Publishing setis a CD- 
ROJVl version of the U.S, Cattbook, 
and Jim WA401SIG has seen to It that it 
is available to any amateur with a 
packet station. The REQQTH server Is 
accessed with a specially (ormaUed 
mall message. The commands on a 
WORLl PBBS are {a carriage return 
follows each command); 

SP REQQTH ©WA40NG SP is for 
Send Private. 

(call), (ca!f>. (ca«), (call), 
(call) @ YourHomeMailBox 

This is the contents of the SUB- 
JECT line, (calf) is a catl thai is being 
queried, the lis! of calls can be sepa- 
rated by commas or blanks. 
YourHomuMailBox is the address to 
send the answer to. 

(e.g,:M1EWO@WJ9UJN.USA). 

/EX This is the first line of the mes- 
sage text, and the only ihing that 
should appear in the message. 

(CONTROL+Z) This ends Ihe 

message. 

The answer to your query will be 
sent via relum mall within a couple of 
days. \l wiFI include the callsign, r^me. 
address, arxl date of tMrth. 

The WB7TPY Packetflrrtemet Gateway 

The Internet is an enormous net- 
work of computers owned by corpora- 
lions, universities and government in- 
stitutions, The connection allows them 
lo share files and mail, and Is de- 
signed to facilitate industrial coopera- 
tion. There are millions of people with 
Internet mail addresses, and thanks to 
the WB7TPY gateway* it is possible to 
send them mail from packel. The gate- 
way is located at WB7TPY.A2, and 
roifling mail through it is simple. On a 
WDRLI boapd the ojmmands kx>k like 
Ihis (each one is followed by a car- 
riage return): 

SP GATE@WB7TPY.AZ.USA.NA 
SP is for Send Privaie. 

(sgbject) Fill in your subject when 
prompted. 

Internet; (a valid Internet address) 
This is the first line of text. II 
should be a valid intemet address 
In the standard format. 

(CONTROL+Z] This ends the mes- 
sage. 

These are just a few examples of 
the services avaiiabfe on the packel 
network. PB8S help files otten incbde 
descriptions of other sen/ices that are 
available. We wtit kxik at others here 
from time to time, including a frequen- 
cy database and a project to compile 
an up-tO'dale repeater list us^ng pack- 



Ufe After WORU 

WORLPs oxceliefit software is seen 
on the ovenvheiming majority of PBB- 
Ss (Packet Bulletin Board Systems) in 
the U.S.. Thene is a r^son for this: It 
is relatively simple, well-written, and it 
workst Though some sysops I have 
spoken with are ready to move on to 
newer and better things, they often ex- 
press fear about new software. There 
is an impression—probably not too far 
from the trutii — that the packet tor- 
warding system is a tenuous and deli- 
cate thing. Sysops whose PBBSs 
serve hundreds or thousands of local 
users are understandably consen/a* 
live. Most ot the experi mental souls 
are concent rating on the network in- 
fTasbiidure. This is a l^tUe safer: either 
the link extsls or it doesn't PBBSs 
generally have many possibte paths to 
forward their tratflc so no one gets 
hurt. 

On the other hand, a rogue BBS 
can easily disrupt traffic in an entire 
region. It makes tor some sleepless 
nights tor the poor sysops who worry 
about such things. There is a problem, 
though. This consen/atism means the 
end users are stuck with an antiquat- 
ed, ditftcull-to-use interface to the 
packel networks. The ironic part of this 
is we are stuck with V^^GRLI because it 
works so welt. It does what it is sup* 
posed to. when it is supposed to — as 
the end user commonity stagnates. Ail 
Hits is very easy for me to say — I bon'l 
have to devetop the new software and 
make it work. Bui there are other 
PBBS programs out there right now 
trying to make a dent in the W0RLI 
world, and they need some help. 

One of the problems with these oth- 
er systems Is that they are still con- 
centrating on the sysop. They provide 
enhancements for the convenience of 
the sysop and the fonwanding network. 
You've got the gun pointed the wrong 
way, guyst We need enhancements lo 
the user intedace. There is no ques- 
lion in my mind that the W0RLI for- 
warding code coutd be improved, but 
as I pointed out earfief — it works. II we 
start seeirtg some inrtovatton in the us- 
ef interface, everyone will win. Sysops 
will sleep peacefully at night knowing 
tfiat the traffic from their PBBS is mov* 
ing around ihe worid — ^stowiy perhaps, 
but smoothly, And the end user— after 
all, isn't that what this Is all about? — 
wiEl find new tun in packel radio, and 
not stick to only three or four com- 
mands that they have figured out. 

Whertm Begin? 

I have done a lot of talking about 
improving things, so I will take the first 
step and make a suggesttcn about 
where to start. This stuff is addressed 
to all you whl^-bang programmers out 
there wfio are just dying to implement 
somcthirhg new, and to the sysop and 
end user ^customers/ You, after all, 
are the people who will make this 
thing work— or not. 



Cljenl-Server 

The Client-Server paradigm (a 
paradigm is a way of thinking about a 
solution) takes the greatest advantage 
of the disthbuted computing power 
that IS available on the packet net- 
work. Has it ever struck you as silly 
that you take your computer — any- 
thing from a C64 to a shiny new 
80486 — and turn it into a dumb tenni' 
nal, just so you can talk to another 
computer? This Is a waste of comput- 
ing power, and is a model from the 
dark ages of computing. Instead, you 
should be able to take full advantage 
of your local computing power to tian- 
die ali sorts of operations. Note: Be- 
fore anyone l^lows a gasket, we do 
need to keep ihe terminal inteifaoe for 
those people who are actually using 
dumb temni rials 

If the Interface between the client 
(the end user) and the server (the 
PBBS) were designed with the idea 
that the client had some intelligence, it 
would open up all sorts of possibilities. 

Traffic Reduction 

A standard data compression 
scheme could be employed to greatly 
reduce the number of packets re- 
quired to send and rocoivB data. This 
would certainJy heip reduce the load- 
ing on the user port frequencies 
which, in some places, are over- 
crowded. \l messages were stored m 
Ihe compressed fomnat. it would also 
tree up precious hard disk at Ihe BBS 
encL 

Batch Mode Interaction 

Righ! now. a P8BS must deal with 
every packet that comes from a con* 
nected station. If the front end were in- 
telligent, a forms-based, fill-irT'the- 
blanks approach would aliow the end 
user to compose all messages off-line^ 
and then send Ihem to the PBBS in a 
batch. This reduces the time that the 
PBBS itself is busy, it would also 
mean that a single PBBS could deal 
simultaneously with as many connects 
as the TNG allows, since these con- 
nects are not interactive, arxf disap- 
pear as soon as the traffic is passed. 

The Power of Forms 

Using the forms-based paradigm, 
users could access all of the services 
available via the packet network with- 
out reading any of the often contusing 
Instructions that are written to explain 
how. For example, a query to a Call- 
book server would only require filling 
in the fields in a form— callsign is real- 
ly all that would be needed. Message 
formatting would be handled by Ihe 
dient softwate^ A really powerful appli- 
cation for this sort of approach is in 
emergency commtinications. 

Here in the Midwest, the majority of 
emergency operations revolve around 
severe weather. With the appropriate 
form, a weather-spoiler coutd fUt in the 
observation, which would be forced in- 
to the standard format, and then 
Choose send. This would connect to 
the beat RACES PBBS for exactly as 



62 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 



long as v^as needed to transmit the in- 
iormatron — ^wh^ch would only need to 
be a few bytes, representing the value 
of the various flefds— and then discon- 
nect immediately, freeing the PBBS 
and frequency tor other stations. 

Standarcts 

In onier for this idea to wortt. we 
need to tiave a slandard, effrcient ma- 
cfiine-to-machine interlace. In trie am* 
aieuf radio community, much as in the 
real world, standards often come from 
one really good product that gets 
copied. So, here's your chance to get 
famous — if not rich. The server end 
needs to be W0RLI compatible on the 
back er^d to facftrtate its introduction 
onto the network. Enhancements to 
forwardirg or whatever can come lat- 
er. It needs to support a simple, termi- 
nal-style Interaction for dumb terml- 
nais that are out there. It should incor* 
porate data compression, and some 
soft of solid event tracking so the ma- 
cfiines don't get out of sync and con- 
fused. And (inally, don1 design it for 
today — design \\ for tomorrow. Re- 
member when 640K looked like the 
universe? 

The other standard we need Is one 
(or forms. These forms should be de- 
fined by simple ASCII lejct files. This 
way. they are easily transmitted 
across the network by service 
providers starting new services- The 
definition syntax needs to support 
fields^ and data types for those fields. 



ReldS must also be definable as re- 
quired or opitonal. The frrst release of 
the dient software must include fomis 
for packet message traffic, NTS traffic^ 
packet White Pages, and the Calibook 
server. Other forms can follow. 

Boih halves of this pro] eel should 
be written in ANSI C, with portability in 
mirxl. The u^r intertace on the client 
side should be CUA (Common User 
Access Compliant) to smooth the 
learning process. There should be 
mouse support, and hooks should b© 
included for speech synthesizers for 
visually impaired hems- 

rm Available 

I won't offer this challenge without 
putting myself on the line. If anyone 
decides to tackle this problem. Tm 
available to help with design— I don't 
do code. This system is sorely needed 
lay the amateur packet community, 
and besides, it could be a Eot of fun. I 
can be reached care of 73 and on BIX 
or MCI Mail as jsJoman. 



SAY YOU 
SAW IT 

IN 73! 





EXERCISE. 

American Heart 
Association 



k 



V 



© 1992. ArrK^ricari Heart Association 



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73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 63 



V ■ Number 1 8 on your Feed 

Hams with class 



Feedback card ^ 



Cam/e Perry WS2MGP 

MediB Mentors, inc. 

RO. Box 131646 

Staten Island NY W3i 3-0006 

Oaylon '92 Youth Forum 

After months of Irrterviews, phone 
caNs, letters, and faxes, the big day fi- 
nally arrived on April 25. 1992. at the 
Youth Forum of the Dayton l-lamven- 
tion. Few people can reaify appreciate 
tlie amoynt of hard work. preparBtk>n, 
and arvxiety mat goes into gettir^g 
ready for a forurn at a natronat con- 
vention. The Youth Fomm m particular 
invoives lots of coordirtatton with the 
youngsters and their parents as well. 
Forlunateiy, the folks who run things 
for the Hamvention are very profes- 
sional and they help to make sure ev- 
erything falls into place when rt's sup- 
posed to. 

My concerns atiead of time were 
twofofd. One: I was searching for 
months for young peopte who were ar- 
ticulate and enthusiastic about ama- 
tewf radio. Two: 1 was lioping thai 
many hanjs would be bringing non- 
tiam children to the fonjm as we had 
been publicizfng it in thie radio maga- 
zines- It's very clear to me tf^at young- 
slers respond eagerly to their peers 
who speak about having fun in their 
hobby. 

Happily, all anxieties were for 
naught. Once we got started, afl of the 
young speakers impressed the "stand- 
trig room only' audience with their elo- 
quence, composure and their dedica- 
tion to amateur radio. Even though we 
were really pressed for time, I was 
pleased to be able to introduce some 
special children in the audience. John 
Kosakowski KC3TM is the proud dad 
of two your^ hams. He brought them 
along to see \he Youth Foaim at my 
invitation after having spoken with 
them on the CQ All Schools Met a few 
months ago. Robert KA3WTG is 8 
years old and in the 3rd grade at 
Heights Etementary School in Nalrona 
Heights, Pennsylvania. He's worked 
274 countries on CW and SSB. He 
has already passed his 20 wpm code 
lest and is working on his ExUa. His 
brother Tony KA3WYS Js 7 years old. 
He has worked 171 countries and has 
made over 600 stateside contacts. He 
has passed his 13 wpm and Is working 
on his Advanced. Can you just picture 
the smiling faces in the audience? It 
was woncierful! 

Fifst up to the microphone was 
Todd Martmson KB9HGE. He is 15 
years old and is a freshman at Bston 
High School In Mk:higan City, Indiana. 
His interests are in emergericy com- 
munications and in OXing, Todd was 
on CB for a while, and then became 
Inendly wilh a ham police officer who 
provided him wilh license exam infor- 
mation. Mow he is a Tech Plus and en- 
courages young people to join the fun 



In amateur radio and become part of 
ttie ^amity' Todd plans lo be a fKslice 
officer when he grows up and feels 
that the radio hobby will be a tremen- 
dous asset to him in his chosen ca- 
reer 

Our next speaker was Lynn Hum- 
mel N3IZE, 12 years old, with a Gen- 
eral license. He's in the 6th grade at 
the Clearfield Area IVIiddle School in 
Clearfield, Pennsylvania. Lynn empha- 
sized the fact that he got into amateur 
radio as a lamity project. He and his 
parents responded lo an ad on local 
TV for a Ikjenscng class. They upgrad- 
ed and got involved in recruiting 
school children, always as a family 
project. He told the chifclren In the au- 
dience to conskier getting their licens- 
es SO that there can be tots of activi- 
ties on the radio Ihal mostly children 
could be In together. 

Angle Fischer KB0HXY Is 13 years 
old and has a General license. She is 
president of the Gateway lo Ham Ra- 
dto Club at the Sacred Heart School In 
Valley Park, Missouri. IVe spoken wilh 
Angle on the air, and her enthusiasm 
tor the hobby is obvious to the children 
who speak with her from my class^ 
Angie is very actively involved m re- 
cruiting other youngsters, believing 
that kids do the best job of "selling' 
ham radio to other kids. With the help 
of her mentor, Dave Novak N0DN, 
she produced a *rap' song exlolNng 
the virtues of Morse code. Angle has 
been selected as the recipient of the 
1992 Westlink Young Ham of the Year 
award. Yaesu USA Corporation pre- 
sented Angle with an expense-paid 
trip to the Ham vent ion where she re- 
ceived a plaque from Westtfnk Report 
and a major equipment gift from Chip 
Margelil of Yaesu at the end ol !he 
Youth Foaim. 

Daniel Savio AA2Gfi^ is 1t years 
iM, is in the 5th grade arxJ has an Ex- 
tra class license. He's from Ridge- 
wood, New Jersey, wfiere he first be- 
came interested in Morse oode at the 
age of 4, He's always been interested 
in electronics, and used to walch his 
dad work with his oscilloscope and 
computers. Daniel has been building 
many different electronics projects 
since he was a little boy. He amazed 
the audience by explaining his interest 
in high technology. He loves digital 
communications, like packet radio. 
AMTOR and RTTY Daniel is trying lo 
get the DXCC in CW. He also enjoys 
working other stations by satellites. He 
explained to the youngsters in the au- 
dience tfiai ham radk) has helped tiim 
wltti his studies in school such as ge- 
ography, science, math, and foreign 
languages. 

Next yp to bowl the audience over 
with her wonderful presentation was 
Christina WitlKowski KC6YUT, 13 
years old, from Glen Ellen, California. 
She attends the Altimira f^jtiddle 
School where she is a 7th grader. 




Pholo A. Lett to right: Angie Fisctyer KBQHXY, Travis Wise KBBFOU, Ctjristma 
Witkowski KC6YUZ Carole Perry WB2MGP, Todd Martinson KB9HGE, Lynn 
Humnwt N3iZE, amt Daniei Savio AA2GM, 



Christina has a Tech Plus Ticense and 
is a joy to speak wrth on the radio. The 
children in my ham fadk> classes look 
forward to speaking with her on the 
CO All Schools net where she often 
checks in from Mr. Bumeirs classroom 
where she is a teaching assistant. 
Mark Burnell KB6ZOL is an old friend 
of the school net. Our classes have 
spoken with each other on the net, 
and have followed up wilh pen pal let- 
ters and school video exchanges 
through the years. There have been 
occasions where I had to step away 
from itie radk> tor a few moments dur- 
ing ^e net. and I had na qualms about 
leaving Christina as net control until I 
returned. Her dad. Mike KG6YUV. is 
also a regular check-m to the net wjth 
his students from the Duntiar School 

t-3St. but definitely not least, was 
Travis Wise KB8FOU from San Jose. 
California. He is 16 years old, has a 
General license and attends Del Mar 
High School. This mature young man 
happens to write a column called 'The 



Youth Ftmjm" in Woild Ba(So. He told 
of how fie hetped out wilh emergency 
communications following the 1969 
l^ma Prieta earthquake. He explained 
how learning to communicate under 
pressure has helped him in school and 
In the rest of his life as well. Travis's 
family utilizes the radio to keep In 
touch with each olher. He encouraged 
people in the audience to think of 
ways that they can expose youngsters 
to the benefits of ham radio. He sug- 
gested doing demos a1 schools, 
Scouting meetings, and places where 
young people congregate. Travis 
stressed how ham radio can open 
doors to employment, excJtemenl arxl 
adventure. 

The Youth Forum at Dayton is a 
place to showcase young people wtK» 
are enthusjastk: atsoul what the hot^y 
and service has to Offer. All the young- 
sters Tve been fortur\ate enough to be 
involved with at the forum are deserv- 
ing of alt our praise for they are truly 
the future of amateur radio. 



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Photo B. Angle Fischer KBQHXY, Westfink Young H&m of the Year 



64 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 



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Number 19 on your Feedback oard 



Andy MacMister WA5ZIB 
74714 Knightsway Drive 
Houston TX 77083 

Satellite Portable 



The warm monlKs of summer ar^d 
early fail are great for anl^ma projects 
and outside activities. Whether it's 
Field Day, a Scout campout in the 
woods or just a Inp to a nearby take. 
Ihe lime is right tor experimenting with 
amateur radio satellite activity. 

t^ost satellite enthusiasts have a 
set ol permanent antennas at home 
connected by carefully rouied low-loss 
coaxial cable to radios and amplifiers 
that rarely move out of the closet, 
study or bedroom. When the always- 
OTi computer precfids a sateffile pass, 
they activate the rotators to track 
across the sky arKJ then make con- 
tacts- Why not try it trom the wilds? 

While checking the white t>ass pop- 
ulation of a beautiful Texas lake, I 
made time for some serious satellite 
chasing. Ralher than drag along a 
complete array ol circularly-polarized 
yagis. I chose simple antennas for the 
outing. 1 managed to stuff a small car 
with a short horizontally-polarized yagi 
lor 70cm, a R(ngo Ranger for 2 me- 
lers, 3 base-loaded, magnet-mount 
whip for 15 melefs and a (fipole for 10 
meters along with some spare and 
borrowed radios, food, fishing gear 
and ottieiT necessities. 

Before leaving, I checked orbital 
predictions for every satellite that used 
the bands covered by the available 
eQuipmeni and brought along paper 
printouts of convenient passes. 

The results were mixed. The fishing 
was great and contacts via some 
satellites were SKcellent, bul ttw high 
Orbiters, AMSAT-OSC AR-1 and kU- 
SAT'0SCAFE-13, yielded no QSOs. 

For RS'12 with its mode K 
transponder (IS meters up and 10 me- 
ters down) results were consistently 
satisfying. On the up[ink, an NCG 15m 
monoband transceiver provided 15 
watts output for CW and S3B. The 
power was passed through 50 feet of 
ftG-8X coax to the modified mobile 
magnet- mount antenna (originally on 
11 meters, now tuned for 15) perched 
on the roof of a r>eartjy van. A tJnklen 
HR-2510 was set to receive ihe 10 
meter downlink using a dipole strung 
from the eaves of the house No 
preamp was needed. Afthough the se- 
lectivity of the HR-2510 is lacking, the 
sensitivity was very good. Several 
contacts were made with this setup. 

The mode A transponder (2 meters 
up and 10 meters down) on RS-10 
was equally easy to work. An ICOM 
IC-211 worked tine with the 2 meter 
Cushcreft Bingo Ranger A smalt pow- 
er amplifier was available but rarely 
used. The IQ-walt output from the 
ICOM was sufficient for good cover- 



Amateur Radio Via Satellites 



age of each available pass, Some 
dropouts were noted at very high ele- 
vations when the satellile passed 
overtiead, bul didn't present a signifi- 
cant problem unltl later. 

RS-14 was operational with tinear- 
transponder activity. Signals irom the 
mode B (70cm up and 2 meters down) 
system were quite good using the 
Ringo Ranger and a preamp. 1 at- 
tempted contacts but the shod 70cm 
yagi became a problem. IWIaking con- 
tacts and running outside every few 
minules to aim it was inconvenient 
and sometimes impossible. If the an- 
tenna had been placed closer to the 
radios or the radios moved outside, 
the situation would have improved. 
Check the Apht I99i "Hamsats' col- 
umn lor oomptete frequency charts for 
RS-12, 13andi4. 

After having made a contact via A- 
0-13, using oniy ground-plane anten- 
nas, on 70cm and 2 meters while on 
vacation last year in Colorado. I as- 
sumed the Ringo on 2 meters and the 
yagi for 70cm would be sufficient. 
They were not. The iHingo Ranger had 
been mounted above a TV antenna, 
thus out of easy reach. Dufing the 
fishing weekend, the satellite was at 
extrcmety high elevations. atx»ve 60 
degrees. The pattern of ihe vertical 
antenna favored the horizon and sig- 
nals from the satellite's mode "B" 
transponder were UBCopyable, It the 
antenna had been easier to get to, it 
could have been oriented perpendicu- 
lar to the computed beam heading for 
much better reception. 

A similar situation existed for mode 
''tT (2 meters up and 70cm down). Al- 
though the 70cm downlink could be 
heard we^l with the small yagi and a 
preamp, no amount of effort wrth the 2 
meter uplink, now running 40 watts, 
yidded a contact Afthough the signal 
was defeclabie through the transpon- 
der it was not enough to oomptete a 
satisfactory QSO. 

Unlike HF operation, where band 
conditions can send a milliwatt signal 
around the world, space communica- 
tions adhere to link-performance 
equations dealing with effective-radiat- 
ed power and path-loss figures. The 
situat«>n never gets better, it only gels 
worse. The orientation of lti€ satellile'^s 
antennas. imnsporKfer loadir^g. atmo- 
spheric noise and kx^ interfenenc^ all 
combine to make the path nrore dfffi- 
cutt. 

For any saiellite-chasfng activjtVt 
whether at home, in the car or on Ihe 
lake, antennas to match the satellite and 
situation are just as important as the ra- 
dios, preamps and power amptifiers. Sim- 
ple antennas woik with the low -earth-or- 
bit sate Nil es when the path is shoh and 
the stgndis strong, bul they rarely provide 
consistent results via A-O-10 and 13. 
Some gain and directivity is needed. 




Pf>oio A. A weit-stocked podable satelMe station for Modes A, B, J and K 



A Portable Answer 

AM SAT Area Coordinator Allan Fox 
N5LKJ has always been Interested in 
making more satellite contacts with 
less equipment. His arikile "Poor Boy 
Satellite Station* in the December 
1383 issue of 73 described his efforts 
with RS-10 mode A using a coal- 
hangef ground plane on the uplink and 
some surplus house winng to fashion 
a dipole for the downlink. The system 
worked well and has been an inspira- 
tion to many newcomers- 

After several discussions and some 
experimentation, Allan has pieced to- 



gether a simple but effective system 
for A-0-13 modes B and J. The goal 
was to find or build an antenna system 
to be used while on vacation around 
the United States and Canada It had 
to work well, be easy and quick to as- 
semble and disassembte. be 
lightwetght^ and store in as littte space 
as possible in the custom van used for 
thethp. 

The fjnal solution came from Mike 
Duddy of Lightning Bolt Antennas, 
Mike produces a wide range of HF 
quads and delta loops ranging from 
simpie two-element varieties (or ID 




Phoio B. AMn N5LKJ checks the array balatice and camera tfipod controls tot the 
Ughtning Bott OSCAR mtmrm system. (Photo by WB5RTTJ 



66 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 



Amateur Software 

and Hardware for 

the Commodore User 



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and recstve on CW, HTTY < Baudot S ASCII) and 
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$199,00 



AIR-1 1 A cQmpleti& interface sj^iem lor send 
and feceive on CW, RTTY (Baudot & ASCIf) and 
AMTOR. for us© with Commodofa VlC-20, 
Opa rating program in ROM 





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[BaudoE S ASCII) tor us© wilh Commodore 64/ 
1^6. Operating progrem m ROM 

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yOiir interface htardware. Bdtti 
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AIR-ROM: Canridgewrsion 
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For C64 or C 1 2B. S49 . 95 

VEC SPECIAL $39.95 



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I 

I 




Photo G, Aitan N5LKJ demonstrates !he '^Armstrong" elevation control on the 
Lightning Bolt porfabie satellite antenna system to Ancfy WASZiB (right). (Photo 
by WB5RJT.) 



meters costing ftss than $100 all the 
way lo a two-eletnent 40 meter mon- 
ster tor nearly S 1,000. 

Mike also produces quads for 2 
meiers and 70cm. One of his dual- 
bard quads with two elements on 2 
melers and four elements on 70cm 
was reviewed by Sill Brown WB8ELK 
in the December 1990 issue of 73. 
ITie quad elements are all on trie 
same boom, whmh for satelMle worit 



can cause deseiise due to tt)e full-cfu^ 
pfeK nature Of satellrte operation- 
Separate antennas on a cross 
boom like most home hamsat arrays 
provided the answer. Allan chose a 2 
meter verttcally-polarlzed four-ele- 
ment quad on a square 46-inch boorn 
In conjunction with a 70cm, horizontal- 
ly-po(arized seven^lement quad on a 
square 43-inch txK>m. Tlie two anten- 
nas mounted easily to a round 54-inch 



cross boom. To achieve good wetght 
balance both antennas have cenieied 
mounltng brackets, 

Allan rnodiHed a heavy-duty cam- 
era tripod to hold the all-Fiberglas ar- 
ray. No rotators were necessary since 
the high -orbit satellites move slowly 
across the sky and the antenna 
beamwKfth is relaiifveiy wide. Deperid- 
ing on the position of the satellite in 
the orbit, up to two hours ol operation 
are possible without re-atming. 

First impressions or the air were 
excellent. Operating via mode B on A- 
0-13. Allan used a Yaesu FT-736R 
transceiver conftgured for satellrte op- 
eration with an amplifier to generate 
about 70 watts output to the 70cm 
quad. A GaAsFET preamp connected 
to the four-element 2 meter quad p Re- 
duced easily-heard signals from the 
satellite. With short coax runs and the 
radios mounted in the van, Allan made 
several contacts through an average 
pass wtiile the satelfite was at apogee 
(its most distant point from the eadh). 

The complete antenna system is 
shipped and can be kept in a box S' x 
4' X 5^ long. The 70cm quad elements 
fold down fiat against the boom for 
storage. The 2 meter elements must 
be completely disassembled, but this 
ctoesn'l take tong. Assembly or disas- 
sembly (after some pracitce) takes 
about 10 minutes. The elements are 



made from a rigid special alby wire so 
some care is advised. Hardware *s 
aluminum tor the mountirtg plates and 
stainless for ihe bolts and clamps. The 
U-bolts are not, but are treated to pre- 
vent corrosion. 

Mike specialize in custom desigrts. 
Some may prefer a ionger cross ixx>m 
(up to 7,5 feet) while others may want 
fsF-iype connectors (the standard is 
SO-239S for VHF and BNCs for UHF). 
The complete an^y, including the an- 
tennas and cross boom, seUs for 
$114.90 plus shipping from Lightning 
Bolt Antennas, RD #2, Route 19. 
Volant PA 16156. or call (412) 530- 
739S. T^y take Visa and MasterCard 
and can usually ship within two weeks 
or less depending on the avaiiabfily of 
Fibefglas parts. The system compo- 
nents can also be ordered separately 
The 2 meter quad sells for $39.95, the 
70cm quad for S49.95 and a 7.5-foot 
cross boom for $25. When a portable 
OSCAR an^ay is ordered, Mike uses 
dimensions to peak the antennas on 
145,900 MHz and 435.500 MHz. 

Listen for N5LKJ somewhere in 
North America during the late summer 
and early fall. Hell be running the 
Lightning Bolt antennas along his 
route from Texas to Alaska* and back 
again via the East Coast. AO-13 is 
his satellite of preference, but he nrtay 
show up anywhere. 



■^^ isiumber 21 on your Feedback 

Dealer directory 



card 



DELAWARE 

NewCasUe 

Factory authorized dealerl Yaesu, I COM, 
Kenwood, Ten-T^c, AEA, Kant rentes, DR- 
St Mfg., Ameritron, Cushcraft, HyGain» 
Neil Sound, Standard Amateur Radio, 
MFJ, Hystler, Oiarr^ond, Butterniit, As- 
Iron, Larsen. and much more. 
DELAWARE AMATEUR SUPPLY, 71 
Meadow Road. f4ew Castle OE 19720. 
(3©2) 32a-7728. 

NEW JERSEY 

Lodi 

Nortln Jersey's newest Two Way Radio 
and Electronics Dealer is now open. 
Sales of tiam, business, marine and GB 
two way equipn^nt as well as scanners, 
shortwave, electronic kits, antennas, 
books. cab^B boxes and more. FrierKJIy 
service and tow prices. ADVANCED 
SPECIALTIES. 114 Essex Stfeel. Lodi 
NJ 07644, (201) VHF-2067. 

NEW JERSEY 

Park Ridge 

Nonti Jersey's oldest and finest Short- 
wave and Ham Radio Dealer. 11/2 miles 
from Garden State Parkway. Aiiihorized 
Dealers for AEA, Kenwood^ Japan Radio 
Ctxnpany. ICOM. Yaesu, etc. Ham S@d^. 
Lee WK2T. GILFER SHORTWAVE, 52 
Park Ave., Park Ridge NJ 07656. (201) 
391-7BB7. 

NEW YORK 

Mar^hattan 

Manhattan's largesi and only ham and 
business Radio Store. Featuring MO- 
TOROLA, ICOM, KEMWOOD, YAESU, 



UNLDEN BENOIX-KJNG. ASTBON, AEA, 
SONY, PANASONIC, MFJ. CCTV CAM- 
ERAS AND MONITORS. BIRD 
WATTMETERS. OPTOELECTRONICS 
FREQUENCY COUNTERS, AOR SCAN- 
NERS, JRC RECErVERS, KANTROM- 
ICS, LARSEN, etc. Full stock of radios 
and accessories. Repair lab on premises. 
Open 7 days M-F. 9-6 p.m.; SaL & Sun., 
10-5 p.m. We ship Woddwkie, For specif- 
ic infofmdtion caU or write' BARRY 
ELECTRONICS. 512 Broadway, New 
York NY 10012, (212) 925-7000. FAX 
{21 2 J 925^7001. 

OHIO 

Columbus 

Central Ohio's iyli-line authorized dealer 
(or Kenwood, ICOM. Yaesu, Alir^co, 
Japan Radio. Star%lard, AEA, Cushioraft. 
Hustler, Diamond and MFJ. New and 
used e^uipmenl qn display and opera- 
tional in our new 10,000 sq. ft. faolity. 
Large SWL Department, too^ UNIVER- 
SAL RADtO, SB30 Americana Pkwy,, 
Reynold aburg (Columbus) OH 430GB. 
(614)866-4267, 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Trevose 

Atfthohaed factory sales and service. 
KENWOOD. ICOM. YAESU. leatunng 
AMERITRON, B&W, MFJ. HYGAIN, 
KLM. CUSHCRAFT. HUSTLER. 
KANTRONICS, AEA, VIBROPLEX, HEIU 
CALLBOOK, ARRL Publications, and 
mucti more. HAMTRONICS, IKC, 4033 
Brownsville Road, Trevose PA 19047. 
(215) 357-1400. FAX (215) 355-895B. 
Sales Order 1-800-426-2020. Cfrcle 
Reader Senfice £96 for rriore miorma^Kxi. 



DEALERS: Tow OHnpany naiom mnti nwKsage can eofitain u|j ta? SO wofils lor as mOu a& S420 ynwiy |pt«- 
paid), or S2iC fnr six months (pnpud}. No mentiofi ol maJi^Nnter bualnc^s pt^^*. Ok^t^ory Ic^ and piy- 
ifwnr muit reach UB GO d:fys^ in 3^v>nc* of publicalicn. FoT exan^{9l«, offveftLfitn^ r^r ih« April td jaau* 
inij£l tke in wjr handi by Fetimary \$t. Uil to 73 Amateur R^dio Todav. 70 Hte. 2t& N. Pfllfifbonsugti, tfH 
03^59 

68 73 Amateur Radio Today * August, 1 992 



Ham help 



Numtaef 20 on your Feedbac*^ card 



We af^ happy to provide Ham Help 
listings free on a sp3ce available 
basis. To make our job easier and 
to ensure that your listing is correct 
please type or print your request 
clearly, douhte spaced, on a Ml 
(811.21*' X 11'*} sheet of paper. You 
may also upload a listiryg as E-mail 
to Sysop to the 73 BBS /Special 
Events Message Area #Tf. (2400 
baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop 
bit. (603) 924-9343). Pleaso indi- 
cate if it is for publication. Use up- 
per- and lower-case tetters where 
appfopnate. Also, print numbers 
carefully — a T, for example, can be 
misread as the letters 1 or i, or even 
the numtier 7, Specificaify mention 
that your message is for the Ham 
Help Column. Please remember to 
acknovirledge responses to your re- 
quests. Thank you for your cooper- 
ation. 

Wanled: Manual and schemat- 
ic for a TenTec Century 21 CW 
transceiver. Frederick W. Gaines 
WA3NUG, 264 Hemlock Lane, 
Springfield PA 19064. Tel. (215) 
544-2713. 

Sailors: Ham of 27 years and 
owner of 48 foot fiberglass sail- 
boat, is seeking a donation of a 
good 12 volt HF transceiver, 



Your Bulletin Board 

shortwave receiver, and antenna 
tuner in trade for future charters 
in the Caribbean. Gary W&4CZB, 
(813) 463-4570. 

fsieeded: Donation of Moonmk- 
er or any 10 and 11 meter beam. 
I will reimburse for shipping. 
Please mark "gtff on package, 
and send to: Pedro Bonnilla 
5YX9517, Edit Universitario Locaf 
2, Ave. iJniversitaria, Los Ch- 
aguaramos, Caracas, Venezuela. 

Wanted: Source for National 
INS8073 Microprocessor Chips 
(buitt in BASIC). Also, 1 would tike 
lo find a source for Standard Bat- 
tery Nicad packs for Heath HW24 
HT handheld. The battery is 
marited HWA-ltO. Heatli cannot 
help in fIrKiing a source^ Charles 
Gef singer N5PTK. PC Box 
72072. Albuquerque NM 87195. 
Thanks. 

I am trying to locate schemat- 
ics for a Siltronix Model 1011C, 
10 and 11 meter transceiver. Al- 
so, schematics for a KRIS model 
Power Pump, 6 and 10 meter 
amp. 1 will pay ail copy and ship- 
ping costs. Bob Neal N6FWJ, PO 
Box 11, Scroggtns TX 75480. 



EVERY ISSUE 
of 73 

on microfiche I 

The entire run of /3 from October, 1 960 
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You can have access to the treasures of 
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We offer a battery operated hand held 
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$220. Libraries have these readers. 

The collection of over 600 microfiche, is 
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for $285 plus $5 for shipping (USA). 
Annual updates available tor $1 0. 

Your full satisfaction is guaranteed or 
your money back. Visa/MC accepted. 

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73 Amateur Radio Today * August, 1992 69 



>l5fC KABOOM 



Ntrtfiber 22 on your Feedback card 



MiciiaeiJ. GeterKBWM 
cfo 73 Magazine 
70 Route 202-N 

Alphabet Soup 

We hams and olber technical types 
are very [ond of acronyms. Yoy know, 
AGO. ALC, PLL, DSP. and all those 
other mind-clogging fetters that de- 
scribe Ihe silicon toys we love so 
mych. This obsession even extends lo 
our operating practices: we tolerate 
QRM, sometimes generate RFI (oops) 
and generally have a good time with 
RF on SSB and FM, where we might 
employ CTCSS and DTMF from an 
HT, Naturally, we enjoy HF, VHP, UHF 
and SHF {or is il EHF?), And let's not 
forget all the administrative stuff. II 
you're ar^ ARRL member, you can be 
an SM. OO, OBS (Offldal Bulletin Sta- 
tion — honesll). arid on arxi on. Ow. Vm 
getting a headache! 

This being a technical column, I 
thought we'd take a look at some of 
the technically-oriented acronyms and 
what they reatly mean. Some of this 
may seem pretty basic, but you may 
find it useful as a refresher. VVhere ap- 
propriate* we'll delve into the spedfics 
as much as possible. 

Hams Do tt with More . . . 

Frequency. The essence of (tie na- 
dio art. Let's see. weVe got HF, which 
stands for High Frequency and, for us, 
extends from 160 meters (1.8 MH^) up 
through 10 meters (2& MHz). Paradox- 
ically, this is the part of the spectrum 
we call the "low bands," simply be- 
cause we have nothing lower allocat* 
ed (or otir use: we have no LFl Even 
stranger, we call 160 meters, at the 
bottom of our spectrum, the 'top 
band;' Who said all that RF to the 
brain was harmless? 

Moving on op, we come to VHF, or 
Very High Frequency, which starts at 6 
meters (50 MHz] and 9oes up to 440 
MHz. Starting at 440, we're at UHF 
{Ullfa High Frequency), wfudh extends 
to at>out 1 GHz, al>ove which itie mi- 
crowave bands begin. Officially desig- 
rated SHF {Supef High Frequency) or 
EHF (Extra High Frequency), we usu- 
aJly jusi call them mkrrowaves. 

Although there are no actual 
physical boundanes between the vari- 
ous areas of the frequency spectrum* 
propa gallon does change pretty dra- 
matically between HF and VHF, so It 
makes sense that the two ranges are 
considered separate. Between VHP 
and UHF, though, the differences aro 
sbibtlOH so the reason for their being 
distinct Is unobvious. Perhaps it has 
something to do with the differences in 
construction techniques required lo 
Implement circuitry which wiH work at 
those freqiiencies. At one time, 100 
MHz was considered UHF, because it 
was stiti exotic and unexplored. As the 



The Tech Answer Man 

frontiers of Ireqiiency have been 
pushed hgher and higher, some of the 
flBqiier>cy ranges have t;ad their antes 
tipped. 

Gimme A Signat 

Sigr^ling schemes filce CTCSS and 
DTMF arose m commercial services 
and were later adopted for ham use. 
CTCSS, or Continuous Tone Coded 
Squelch System, was originated by 
Motorola for their pagers and walkios 
and was {and is) known by their trade- 
mark "PL," for Private Line. Because 
ihey own the name, though, the 
generic version we use required some 
other moniker. Hence CTCSS. which 
is quite a mouthful. It works like this: 

A low-level audio tone is gerveratod 
by the 'encoder' and mixed with your 
transmit audio. Its frequency can 
range from 67 Hz to about 250 H^. AJ- 
though it often is referred to as a 
" sutiaudible" tone, il can t>e qurie au- 
dibfe* especially if one of the higher 
tones is used. At e? Hz, many radios" 
speakers can'X r^roduce i! but, at 250 
Hz, they all can. because that is hght 
in the male voice range. The tone 
sounds like a tow4eve^ tium. arxJ IVe 
had many occasiof^s m which I've had 
my CTCSS encoder on and had a 
fnerxlly voice break into my conversa- 
tion to "infomi" me that I had a hum 
on my signal? 

When a radio or repeater equipped 
with a CTCSS decoder receives sig- 
nafSt it keeps its squelch closed until 
the decoder hears the correct tone, at 
which poirt the speaker comes to life. 
The technique has proven quite useful 
in situations where two repeaters are 
interfering with each other. Put thorn 
on separate CTCSS frequencies and 
they don't bring each other up. Natu- 
rally, thai doesn't prevent interference 
when both are mnning at Ehe same 
time. 

Many modem walkJes include, or 
Offer as an opiion, CTCSS enco- 
der/decoders. If you just want lo ac- 
cess CTCSS-prcktected repeaters, you 
only need the encoder. But you may 
find ttve decxKler handy as welt. For m- 
slartce, you can use it at hamfests to 
avoid constantly having your squelch 
tripped by neartjy transmitters {other 
walkies) on adjacent freqyer>cies. Al- 
so, you can use it through non -CTCSS 
repeaters. Very few tiams seem to re- 
aJize this. If you want to wait lor a spe- 
cific call but don't want to listen lo the 
daify chatter, simply arrange with the 
calling station to use the CTCSS. Be 
sure to pick a high tone, though; many 
repeaters can1 pass the low ones. Al- 
so, if you have your decoder on, be 
sure to check the frequency tor activity 
before transmitting, because you can1 
hear when others are talking. And re- 
member usir>g CTCSS in no way pre- 
vents others fn^m listening to you: U 



just prevents your hearing them when 
70 73 Amateur Radio Today • August. 1 992 



you don't want tol Obviously, this Utile 
selective callmg scheme won't work 
with a CTCSS repeater because you 
must send the tone it requires to open 
il up. Unfortunately, you can only send 
one tone at a time. Or can you? 

M umber, Please 

One of the telephone company's 
greatest inventions was the DTMF, or 
Dual Tone Mulli Frequency, system. 
They call ft TouchTone Like PL that's 
a tmdemafk, so we have lo revert to 
its genehc technical acronym. Origl- 
naJly developed decades ago to pro- 
vide piish'botton telephoning. DTMF 
has found its way into radio In a big 
way. 

The most popular use for iMs In re- 
peater autopatching. which lets you 
connect to the landllne telephone net- 
work and place phone calls. In my ex- 
perience^ the facility lo do that 3s, for 
no n- hams, a very big attractant lo iiam 
radio. Nothing lights their faces up like 
hearing that dial tone coming from the 
speaker of a walkiel 

Another important use for DTMF is 
repeater control. Most repeaters can 
be controlled over the air. using Ihe 
tones. If you're a repeater control op- 
erator, it's awfully nice to be able to 
turn the repealer on and off, enable or 
disable CTCSS and control access to 
the autopatch, using an HT from mites 
away! 

Atthough walkies have had DTMF 
number pads for years, onty recenlty 
have they started being equipped with 
sequential decoders. These new rigs 
can decode three- to six-number 
codes, opening their squelches only 
when the proper combination has 
been received. They also can accept 
several different codes and display 
what has been receive d, so you can 
see who has called. Unfortunately, 
they all Buffer one serious drawback. 
The coding scheme, which apparently 
has been standardized In Japan, al- 
lows the sending of only the digits 
through 9; no # or * codes can be 
sent Most repeater controllers, which 
are designed here in Ihe US. can be 
set to disallow the retransmission of 
DTMF cod^ unless they are preced- 
ed by a special code. Many control 
ops set them up that way so that 
phone patch ar^ control digits can't be 
f\eard on Ihe repeaiefs' outpuls. TTiat 
special code, however, requires the 
use of tlie unavailable digits, making 
the DTMF signaling scheme useless 
through most repeaters. Of course, 
you can still use it at hamfests. but 
CTCSS is easier to set up and works 
just as welL 

What Goes Around 

PLL; I ve discussed PLLs before in 
some detail, but let's go over the ba- 
sics again. First, a PLL Is a Phase 
Locked Loop, and is part of a radio's 
frequency synthesizer. It compares the 
frequency of an oscillator with a digi- 
tally-derived reference and adjusts the 
oscillator until it s on its Intended fre- 
quency, A PLL has nothing whatever 
lo do with PL. I hear the two terms 
confused on the air all the lime. Most 



frequency-synthesiied radios made 
today use PLLs, but there's another 
frequency-generating design now 
gaining popularity. 

DOS: f^o, iVs not another pestickle. 
DDS stands for Direct Digital Synthe- 
sis. In this relatively new technique, 
the focal osciliator signals are generat- 
ed digitally ar»d then passed through a 
DAG (Dtgitat to Analog Converter) to 
tum them into the required srne wave, 
Atttxiugh it requires high-speed digital 
circuits, the method has distirK^t ad- 
vantages over the PLL system be- 
caose it Is not constantly correctrng a 
wandering oscillator, so it has much 
less pr^ase noise. 

The Three "A"s 

They are; AGC. ALC and AFC. 
AGC, or Automatic Gain Control, Is 
the receiver circuit that attempts to 
keep incoming signal fluctuations from 
affecting the recovered audio by com- 
pensating with the gain of the RF and 
IF stages. 

ALC is sort of the same thing, but 
for a transmitter It keeps you from 
overdriving the transmit PA (Power 
Amprrfler) on voice peaks by adjusling 
the amplifier's gain. Specifically, it cuts 
the gain t>ack as peaks occur. ALC is 
also used to keep the PA from over- 
driving an externa! linear amplifjer. In 
9iat application, the ALC voltage is de^ 
rived in the lin^r and fed ttack to ihe 
transmitter, 

AFC is a syslem which keeps a re- 
ceiver fram drifting off the traf^smitter's 
frequency. It is usually found on FM ra- 
dios in the YHF-and-up ranges, espe- 
cially where ttiere is no crystal or fre- 
quency-synthesized tuning. 

Watch This 

Hams use two fornns of television, 
SSTV and ATV. SSTV refers to Slow- 
Scan TV, in which video information is 
slowed down and sent as audio tones 
representing still piclures. These tones 
occupy less than the allotted 3 kHz, so 
ihe pictures can be sent over HE ATV 
refers to regular, wideband, full-motron 
TV, just like the kind we're all used to, 
and is foufKf on UHF and higher ranges. 

FAX, or Facsimile. Signals are simply 
a paper-oytput form of image scanning. 
FAX has its own langtia^, though, be- 
cause il comes from other radio ser- 
vk)es. For one tfiir^, tJvere*s IDC. or In- 
dex Of Cooperation. FAX machines 
used to wrap the paper arourxj a drum. 
As the drum spun at some spedfk: LPM 
(Lines Per Minute), an oplical pickup (for 
transmitting) or a pen (for receiving) 
would sk>wly move down the drum, cre- 
ating an extended spiral pattern of lioes 
and scanning Ihe entire image* The ratio 
of the speed of the drum to the speed of 
the pickup or pen's lir^ear motion was 
the IOC. Although computers are now 
more common for FAX^ thO technique 
and its terms still apply. 

Well, there's no end to the acronyms, 
but I hope this at least covers some of 
the more common ones. Don't forget to 
watch out for TVL QRM and QRN, and 
Keep the PHT {Powerful Headache 
Tablets) handy* 

73 and see you aQ next month! 




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73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1992 71 



^L ■ Number 23 on ) 

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your Feedback card 



Compiled by Hope Currier 




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72 73 Amateur R^dio Today * August, 1 992 




I 

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73 Amateur Radio Today* August, 1992 73 



Number 24 on your Feedback card 



^^M ^^ Number 24 on your Feedba 

73 INTERNATIONAL 



AmtG Johnson NJBAC 
43 Ofd Homestead Hwy. 
N. Swanzey NH 03437 

Notes from FN42 

Just a coupte of quick notes before 
we get to the interna tionai news, t re- 
ceived some additional intormalion con- 
cerning language study booits. Rodney 
Jackson WA9NZF ffas brought anolher 
source of books to our att&ntton. in addi- 
tiof) to tt^at from David Cowhig WA1LBE 

Tnefe is not only one booK but there 
are five books in pdrrt to asstst US. (or 
English- speaking hams} with foreign 
OSOs, And yes, one of the books in- 
chjdes Japanese, fn fact, it is ttie reason 
I purchased the book. The books are the 
bratnchM of 'Hose, * the wife of a tiam in 
Mundetein, iifinois. The books are adver- 
tised in 73 Magazine, Rose' now has 
four books in print. Each book covers 
four different languages in add f Hon to 
English. For example, In Book 1 there is 
Spanish, German, French ^ Polish, and 
Japanese, plus English. Each ianguage 
has 41 pages ofQSO information cover- 
ing antennas, openings, ctosings. coiom, 
days of the w&ek, greetings, hobbies/m- 
ter^ts, kxations, and others. Every ian- 
guage section is ttie same. For instance, 
on page t3, phrase number seven is 
"My QTH is (2) km sounr ot Chk:ago, ' no 
matter what the ianguage. Computer 
gsneration is wonderful for thisf 

"Book 2 covers Swedish, ttatian, Por- 
tugese, Norwegian, and SeFt»Croation. 
Book 3 covers Russian, Danish. Czech, 
Korean, and Hawaiian. Another book 
covers Chinese, Ouich, Finnish, Roma- 
nian, and Vietnamese." 

i found the ad for ^Rose'' in one of the 
issues and each volume costs SW US 
(or $12.50 US for shipping outside the 
US} and can t>e ordered from Rose, P.O. 
Box 796, Mundelein iL 600600796. Jell 
tfwm that Rodwy and Wayne sent you. 
Rodney comments that the books are 
Spkat-bound. lay fiat, and are of excei- 
feat quality for tf}e pnbe. Rodney says, 
TGa suki desu {f tike it), ' 

/ want to cxifTBct an unintentional er- 
ror on my part. David Mors fall has 
brought this error to my atten^n. I have 
used the word "Transportation" in the 
past instead of the word "Transport" in 
the Australian portion of the column. 
Just to keep the record straight, the cor- 
rect usage is "Department of Transport 
and Communtations. " 

And now on to the news from around 
the world.— 73, Amie NiBAC 

Roundup 

Democratic People's Republic of 
Korea (Pyongyang, North Korea J Let- 
ter from Jose( Zabavik OKIDTG. dated 
28 April t992: Dear Friends! I alkiw jny- 
self to write a few sentences to you, I 
am a Faithful reader and would like to 
describe my attempts to propagat)& otir 
Sport djring on© year ol my stay tn 
North Korea, 



Just afler arriving in !his country, in 
April 1991 , I requested (in ivrilten fomi) 
a local licensing organization to give the 
official licence fer radioamateur broad- 
casting activity. My request was deliv- 
ered Via the Post Office and (tien via 
Diplomatic Post (a diplomatic note). Be- 
cause of the lack of a response until 
September 1991J repeated my request 
SIM more times, from September 1991 to 
March 1992, but slill no answer. My re- 
qiiests were also directed to the Korean 
People's Army {KPA) which is lesponsh 
ble (or the communication setvaces if) 
the DP.R, ol Korea, 

In April 1992, when I was about to 
tmeJd my stay in th^s countfy, I received 
information from the staff of the KPA 
(from the Chief Protokot). I was told in 
principle that they didn't have anything 
against my radioamateur broadcasting 
activity in the 40 meter band with output 
power of 10 watts. I wanted to receive 
this information In written form but I was 
told that it would be given to me later. 

On this basis I started my work on 12 
April 1992 in the 7 MHz band using the 
call Sign 0K1DTG/P5 and worked unlit 
24 April 1992 wlien I asked Ihe KPA 
ofice rrrore to give me their permissioo tn 
written form, tn tt^ meantime the day of 
my departure from North Korea was 
coming very near and I sm had rx) pf^ys- 
ical proof of n^ efforts to receive written 
permission to operate. Since 1 didnt 
want to endanger my calteign, 0K1DTG. 
I stopped communicating after approxi- 
mately 500 QSOs on 7 UHz. 

I am sending a similar letter to the 
Amateur Radio Relay League and am 
asking them to recognize my efforts to 
receive official pemnission for my activity 
from North Korea. 

It is liard to imagine how hard Itie liv- 
ing conditions are and that it ts almost 
impossible to gain something and to 
have to urge tfie govemment to grve you 
a ftnaJ answer to a requesl. I think thai 
ttvis place will be inaccessible for oui 
sport for a tortg tin^e to come rf this tack 
of communications continues. 

Josef Zabavik. OKWTG. UNCSF- 
JSA(JDOl Czechoslovak Delegation to 
the NN$C, APO AP 96 25/-04t7, USA; 
or Ohradni 1361, 140 GO Praha 4, 
Cmchoslovakia. 

Japan (From the JARL News): 

JARL & CRSA RELATIONS 

Mr. Qin Duxun, President of the Chi- 
nese Radio Sports Association (CRSA), 
arrived in Japan on Febmary I5th. ac- 
companied by Mr. Wan Xun. Deputy 
Secretary-General. Upon visiimg JARL's 
headquailDrs. they exchanged lively 
talks with President Kara JA1AN, and 
Other staff members^ With renewed de- 
termination, both stdes discussed m 
earnest aticut promotion of friendly rela- 
tions between ttieir two countries 
through means of amateur radio and fol- 
lowing an exchange of opinions^ it was 




Photo A. Josef Zabavik QKWTG/P5 and ham shack wtJife m Pyongyaryg, D.PR^ 
of Korea (North Korea). 



agreed tfiat the ties of friendship already 
existing be further strengthened. 

Scotland From "Paddy* ftrfcGilt. 
GM3MTH: The Scottish Tourist Board 
(Radio Amateur) Expedition Group is 
listing two expeditions for AugusL The 
first will take place on August 1st from 
Pollok Park Jn Glasgow, home of the 
Burrell Collection and Pollok House, 
birthplace of The Nalional Trust tor Scot- 
land, established in 1931. The calisign 
lised will be GB8PP, 

The second expedition will happen 
August 22-23 at tlie 3fd Annual West of 
Scotland Steam Fair a! the Summerlee 
Museum tn C(Mitxiclge. The cailstgn will 
be GB6SM. 

Tiie nomval trmes for the events are: 
Saturday-=0e00-2200 UTC and Suo- 
(tay— 0900-appfOx, iSOOUTC. For a Lisi 
of Events/Information Pack write to; 
^hn (Paddy) McGIII. GM3MTH, 9, Ram- 
say Pf.p Coatbridge, Lanarkshire. Scot- 
land, ML5 5RH- Enclose two second 
class stamps or the equivalent for return 
postage. 

Switzerfand From tt^e International 
Telecommunication Union ^TU} Press 
Release: Azerbaijan and Estonia be- 
came ttie 167111 and I63m nr»embers of 
therrUmAprill992. 

Azerbaijan is situated on ffie south- 
eastern f tanks of the Caucasus Moun- 
tains and is bordered by the Caspian 
Sea, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Rus- 
sia, Armenia, and Georgia. It has a tend 
area of about 66,600 square kikKnelers 
and a population of approximately 
7,029pOOO, of which 1 ,757,000 is in the 
capital Baku (1989). 

Estonia is bounded west and north by 
the Baltic Sea, east by Russia, and 
south by Latvia. Its population size is 
1,573.000 (1989) of which 482,000 live 
in the capital city of Tallinn. Its main eco- 
nomic activity is agriculture and dairy 
farming, Estonia has also rich high-qual- 
ity shale deposits, peat deposits, and 
phosphor (les. But the degree of eicper- 
tse of its work force favours the devei- 
opmenl of tight industry (textile, wood- 
work, radio equipment and electronics, 
and measuring equipment). 

The accession of Azerbaijan and Es- 
tonia follow that of LFthuania (12 October 
1991) and Latvia [11 November 1991}. 
The former USSR Republics of Belarus 



and Ukraine have both been members 
Of the fTU since 7 May 1947. 

WORLD TELECOfWtfWUNlCATtOf^S 
ADVISORY COUKCIL 

Senior representatives of the 
telecommunications Industry have 
agreed to create a World Telecommuni- 
cations Advisory Council (WTAC), The 
Initiative was taken in response to a rec- 
ommendation made by Itie High -Level 
Committee. The High-Level Committee 
was esiablished by the ITU F^nipoten- 
tiary Conference to recommend struc^ 
lural refornis to respond better to the 
changing nature of the telecommunica- 
tions environment, arKJ particularty, to re- 
spond to the challenge posed by the 
greater dynamism, creativity and com- 
petitwity of a number of new partners. 

The Council aims at providing the 
UU with strategic advice from the public 
and private sectors on the telecom muni' 
cations environment and how, in the 
light of its dynamic nature^ the Union's 
principal activities could be carried out 
more effectively 

Its purpose is also to consider the 
slate of global telecommunications net- 
work and services, monitor its growth 
and make recommendations lor the pro- 
motkm ot the tLarmonious woridwide de- 
velopment of informatidfi technobgy, for 
the welt-bemg and betterment of 
mankind. In addition, the Council will 
work to raise awareness among financ- 
ing EnstJtutions and governments in de* 
veloplng countries of the importance of 
investing in tetecommunications. 

Further inlormation can be obtained 
from: Ur. Terrefe Ras-Work, Esceculive 
Secretary ot WTAC. International 
Telecommunication Union, Place de Na- 
tions, CH-I2n Geneve 20, Switzerland. 

Ukraine From the Prometheus Ham 
Digest (PHD) of the Prometheus Ama- 
teur Association {PAA): The front page 
article of the Digest is an Open Letter to « 
Mr V.I. Deiikatny. Minister of Commune I 
catM^ns of the Ukraine ^rom V. Kryanitsa, 
Executive Secretary, RSF ot the 
Ukraine. The tope addressed tfw pfob* 
lem of tetters being sent to Ukraine 
hams by foreign hams being opened, 
contents being removed, and sometimes 
the remains being sent on or "lost." 

V. Kiyanitsa ran an experiment hav- 



74 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 



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76 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1992 



ing 27 tetters maileci to him from abroad 
with one Eo two iRCs enclos&d. Onty 
three letters macte it to him!!! "? only 
hope Ihal you. Sir, will investigate the 
probtem thoroughly and will be able to 
stop what is going on since It influences 
Ihe international prestige of the 
Ukraine.'' 

{For those of yau who have not re- 
ceive<f QSL confirm^Uon from Ukmin^ 
hams, or even those in other countries. 
this may be the reason. DonY btame the 
hams ihemsetves uniess you have posi- 
tive proof* A! iesst one country is Bt- 
tempbng to correct the problem. 

PHO has been pubtished by PAA 
since August 7991. One-year svbscnp- 
fliows are avaifabie for US$12 from PAA 
(^0 George Yankopoius, 13 Glen Mead- 
ow Drive, Gien mils FA 19342, USA. 
Letters, pictures, articles, etc, shoutd De 
submitted directly to the Editor, Alex 
Ulyanich RB5U, Box 1, Erjakiewo 29, 
KonetskBya Obtast, 343320 Ukratne, — 
ArrmJ 

AUSTRALIA 

David L Hors^ff W2KFV 
PO Box 257 
Wahfoonga NSW 2076 
Australia 

There is not much news at the mo- 
ment that has not been covered be- 
fore—the 'Code-less Novice* is still on 
its way, the XW Forever* brigade are 
still fightrng a rear-gBard action, and the 
ROSE/NetRom protocol wars continue 
unabated, wim various personality 
cEashes and claims of tiiett and van da i- 
ism of packet switches. 

The Department ai Transport and 
Communications (DoTC) has released 
an information paper— RJP-73A— whidi 
provides mformation fof overseas opera- 
tors and covers reciprocal licences and 
temporary permits. It is worthwhiie re- 
producing the highiights here. Overseas 
amateurs visiling Australia fail into three 
categories: 

CATEGORY A: Amateurs ffOm coun- 
tries having a redpfocal ticeflsiiig agree- 
ment with Australia, These countries 
are: Canada, Denmark, France (and 
New Caledonia), Germany, India, israei, 
Japan, Malaysia. New Zealand, Papua 
New Guinea, Poland, Singapore, 
Solomon Islands, Spain. Switzeriand, 
United Kingdom, and United States of 
AmefJca. Amaieijrs visiting for less than 
a year wilj be issued with a temporary 
non- renewable pem^ii Amateurs intend- 
ing to stay wiEl be issued an AusiraEian 
amateur licence. 

CATEGORY B: Amateurs from coun- 
tries having no reciprocal licensing 
agreement with Australia but having 
qualjftcations/lioences with a recognised 
Australian equivalenL These countnes 
are: Argentina, Fatkfand Islands, 
Greece. Hong Kong. Indonesia, Ireland, 
Italy, Luxembourg, t^alta, Nauru, Nettier- 
lands, ISIorway, Philipptnes, South Africa^ 
Srj Lanka (Ceylon), Sweden, Vanuatu, 
and West Indies (Cayman Islands). Am- 
ateurs trom these countries, regardfess 
of their residenliat status, will be issued 
a non-renewable temporary permit for 
12 mOfithSu 

CATEGORY C: Amateurs from coun- 
tries having no reciprocal licensing 



agreement with Australia and no recog- 
nised Australian equivalent qualitica* 
lions/licences. Amateurs from these 
countries, regardless of tiieir intended 
residential status, will be Issued witfi a 
non- renewable tempofary penr^it for 12 
months, pefmitltng 10 watts (mean pow- 
er> FM telephony in tt>e 146-14S MHz 
t^nd only [this looks suspiciously like 
the proposed Code-less Novice li- 
ce n cell. 

ft is preferable that you apply for a li- 
cence in person so that the original doc- 
uments can be sighted and a licence is- 
sued over the counter. Applications are 
accepted by mail but please allow three 
months so that the ii^nce can be tor- 
warded to you t>efore you depart for 
Australia. The following documents are 
needed: (a) a copy of your amateur cer- 
tificate and passport (with English trans- 
lation), certified by a public notary (mail 
applications only); (b) a compteted li- 
cence application form (RF-57); (c) your 
current licence, or a certified copy, with 
EngH^ tritnstation; (d) p<oof, such as a 
visa, that your visit is lor no k>nger than 
12 mor^ths (visitors only); and (e) the 
current licence fee of $35 (Australian). 
Cineques or money Orders are lo bo 
payable to the "Receiver of Public Mon- 
ey' 

Note that whilst! licerKes are ren@w- 
3t)le annually, temporary permils are 
not If you are granted an Australtan fn 
cence or permit as a visitor, it cannot tm 
used to obtain a licence in other coun- 
tries. Also. Australian operating condi- 
tions, e.g, power levels, etc^ must be 
adhered to. Finally, an Australian li- 
cence, temporary pemiit or cailsign can 
only be used wiit^ Australia, its territo- 
ries, or territorial waters. Further infor- 
mation can be obtained from the [depart- 
ment of Transport and Communications 
in each state, or from the Wireless insti- 
tute of Australia, RO. Box 300, Caulfield 
South, Victoria 31 S2, Australia. 

Tills was tonger than I intended, so in 
Ihe next coJymn I'lJ briefly summarize 
Ihe Australian licensing scheme, the 
power levels and modes, elc., and how 
to tell an operator's grade ot licence 
from his/her calfsEgn. Cheers for now, 
Those with access lo Internet or packet 
can contact me as "'dave@ips OZ,AU" 
and "VK2KFU©VK2RWI,NSW.AUS OC* 
respectively. 73. Dave VK2KFU. 

BULGARIA 

MUen PmUtdshieff 

PO Box 237 

7000 Russe 

Bulgaria 

Packet: L22I^P&HB9AK.CHEEU or 

lZ2MP^DKi0fmVDEU.EU 

OfGITAL MODES IN ByLGARlA 

Ttie frrsi serious RTFY activrty in Bui* 
garia started amund 1974 at the student 
radio club LZ1KDP in Sofia, the capital 
city of Bulgaria. They were using a me- 
chanical RTTY machiine donated by the 
German Amateur Radio Teleprinter 
Group (GARTG). Until 1986 some mher 
stations were active on RTTY from Bul- 
garia, but two stations stood out as ttie 
most prominent LZIKDP and L-Z2KRR. 

In January 1986 LZ2MP and LZ2XA 
activated the Student Radio Ctub 



LZ2KIM at the Technicaf Unlvefsity in 
Russe on RTTY using an Apple lt+ com- 
patrble oomputer, a tKi^me-brew TU. wifi 
actfve filters, and a simple RTTY pfO- 
gram. This proved lo t)e ttie first *cam- 
put€ri2ecr RTTY ^atiDn m Bu1ga/-ia. In 
KAay t986, using the FTTTY setup and a 
Hamiexl program fron^ Kantronics. 
LZ2MP activated the club station 
LZ2KIM on AMTOR, which was also a 
first tor L2 land. Finally, in March 1987. 
running a home-brew 300 baud modem 
and a DL2MDL AX.25 program. LZ2KIM 
was actuated on HF PackeL Again, this 
was the first packet activity from Bulgar- 
ia. 

Today there are about 20 RTTY se- 
tups in Bulgaria but quile often hams 
who do not have RTTY capabilities at 
home use the club equip mem und#r 
Iheir owrt callsigns. Consequently* you 
may have heard many more LZ stations 
on tlie air. Most of these stations typical- 
ly consisi of a hoine-brew Apple 1 1 com- 
pati^ble and T.U. with active filters. 

On AMTOR there are about five sta- 
tions currently active. For this mode 
most ot the hams are using Apple fl, 
ho me -brew T.U. with active filters, the 
HB9BCS AMTOR/RTTY program or a 
home-brew A MT-1 iook-a tike unit. 

About 15 packet radio set-ups are in 
use here. We don't liave any VHF/UHF 
packet networks here because of the 
lac^ of equipment, so most of the activity 
is on HF or on direct links within the 
same OTH. A typical packel set-up con- 
sists of an Appte H compatible, a home- 



brew modem with the DL2MDL AX.25 
program or home-brew TiSfC2 fook-alike 
unJL 

tt is f>ot too difficult to buBd a home* 
brew Apple II look-aiiKe l^ere, and lately 
even fadofy-built ones are available at a 
reasonable price. ISM PC/XT compati- 
bles are also available lately but they 
are extremely expensive^ so the digital 
activity js increasing very rapidly* 

With the pOliticaJ changes during line 
past few years some surplus military 
and police equipment that can be modi- 
fied to 2m FM has become available bul 
it is not very easy to get and can be a bit 
expensive. Last year the first three 2m 
F^ repeaters were installed. Two of 
them are liigh in the mountains ar>d are 
accessible from almost all locations in 
Biilgaria. Tliere are approximately 200 
hams who have equipment for 2m FM, 
most of rt cryslai-con trolled. We hope 
Ihal by the end of this year ttiere wiU be 
several packet digipeaters and even 
packet nodes installed in Russe. Sofia , 
and some other places, so probably 
vvithcn a few years more activity will take 
place. The countries around Bulgaria 
are not connected to tfie European 
Packet Net but we have high hopes for 
the future, maybe even an HF APLINK 
system from here to connect to the rest 
of the country and the world. Initial ex- 
periments are in progress at I-Z2MP and 
LZ2KIM, Watch out world, here we 
corned 

73, Milen IZmP, 



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73 Amateur Radio Today * August, 1 992 77 



Continued from page 4 

attitudes? Well, we can start by admit- 
ting ttiat punishment has never 
worked as a gcxxj teacher. Yes. these 
cfummy people have rot>becl, beaten, 
raped and so on. They certatnty de- 
serve to be punished, nght? So lei's 
teach them a lesson by locking them 
Lip for a few years and making life rot- 
ten for them. Lots get even. 

Well, thai may be satisfying to the 
viclims, but we l;now now that the 
whole process only makes things 
worse — ^resyltirig in even more VM:tifTis. 
And Knowing how kxisy prison Is. pte 
having had a master's education in 
crinfie while in the pint the last time, 
they're even more nasEy to their new 
tficdms and harder to catch. So shouW 
we molly-coddle Ihem fnslead? Then 
we come off as suckers and they were 
right to take advantage of us. 

Okay, here's my proposed solution 
to the prison problem. First, in order to 
get costs down 1 propose two ap- 
proaches. One is to put prisons whefe 
ifs less expensive to Keep people. 
Let's start looking for oontfacts from 
private prison companies with facilities 
in the tow-rent areas of the worJd. J Is 
obviously a lot less expensive to store 
peopie in tropical third-world countries 
than in Massachusetts— even count- 
ing the transportation. If I were going 
into the prison business Td check out 
Chad, Burkina Faso, Guam, Indone- 
sia, Mexico, and pertiaps even China. 
I think some of these places wouJd 
make It possible to keep prisoners for 
a tenth the cost in the U.S. 

With modem etectionics it's easy lo 
keep track of prisoners by pultirrg a 
smaJI neck transmitter unM on them 
which will sound an alann if they go 
beyond their allowed area. That saves 
on building walls, cells and guards. 
We can even add a microphone and 
record what they're saying and hear- 
ing, A nearby recorder can store 
months of vocce-ciuality digital audio 
recording. Hey, we didn't guarantee 
them privacy. 

ftow there's the tittle matter ol re- 
forming their behavk^r. We know that 
punishment jost doesn't work, so lets 
think in terms of rewards for good be- 
havior. For instance, the nomial prison 
chow could be very basic slop — 
enough to keep them from starving, 
but still slop. To get better food they'd 
be pennitted to wort^ in co-op gardens 
and grow meat, fruit and vegetabies. 
They get to eat better if they work. 
That's positive reinforcement for the 
okJ work ethic. 

As a prison company Td soviet* bids 
from companies interested in setting 
up some plants lo use my pnson labor. 
A study of the raw materials available 
and the markets within easy shipping 
distance would result [n a list of prod- 
ucts which could be made at a profit. 
Forced labor? Nah. Again, the prison- 
ers would have the choice of a bare 
minimum existence or etse working 
and earning credits which could be 
used to rent a TV. video cassettes, au- 
dkt cassettes, a boom box, nk^ fumi- 
tyre, r^nd other comforts. They'd be 



learning skills which will help them re- 
join society arxi gel work when Itie/re 
reteased. 

Knowing tfial the/ re beirig reco ril- 
ed 24 hours a day an6 that authorities 
can at any time review the tapes mtght 
keep down antisocial behavior. Com- 
puters can even keep track of when 
any two or more prisoners are togeth- 
er, but not talking — suggesting they 
may be plotting something by writing 
instead of lalkir^g. 

The pnson-ryn businesses should 
be able to cover the (X)sls of r^inning 
the pnsons. even tymir>g a small prof- 
iL Tt^afs a loi tjetter than socking tax- 
payers S25,000 ar>d up a year to store 
more and more cfimir^ats. We might 
even want to charge them for the po- 
Ifce and court costs Of catching and 
convicting them, letting them work off 
those costs with part of their prison 
earnings. That would lower the tax- 
payer burden even further. 

Ard, after all, it was their decision 
to break the taw, which caused us ttie 
expense, so v^hy should we have to 
Fool the bill for i^Lchlng and convicting 
them? 

If they do commit more crimes 
when ihey get tiack and get convicted 
again. Eel's hope the judges make their 
prison terms much longer After all, 
sending them away for re-educatton 
isn't costing us anything. For that mat- 
ter, we might stop paroling realty seri- 
ous offenders since lite in prison 
wouKtn'l be the misery it is now. 

This system is aimed at trying to 
overcome the poor education we've 
forced on the poor. It isn't going to be 
as helplul to the worst cnminal cases, 
Sut we can still store these crurnbs in 
much less expensive areas of the 
world, fencing them in with an elec- 
tron ic bracelet with stun power if they 
get out of line or try to escape. 

Between a good preschool educa- 
tion which will inculcate positive role 
models, a spirit of cooperation and an 
interest in leamir>g, lotlowed by coop- 
erative education pnvate schools, paid 
for via vouchers from the slate, we 
can break the wf>ole poverty system 
so we don't end up with street gangs 
substituting for failed families. Kids 
need to feel they belong to a group, so 
if the family is kaput, they depend on 
the gang. 

The nice part of all this is that well 
be able io get rid of welfare, chronic 
unemployment, police and court costs, 
and prison costs, plus we'fl be able to 
cut our educational costs by about 
50% and still end up with belter 
schools, complete with computers and 
satellite communications for distance 
learning courses^ And the kids will be 
learning skills, plus how (o be suc- 
cessful in the information age — suc- 
cessful in their work and IJfe. 

The past immigrants from Ger- 
many. England, Poland, Ireland* Italy 
and so on all prc^ved our melting pot 
system worked. Within two genera- 
tions their kids were Americans and 
spoke American. Now let's convince 
the blacks to stop toeing Afro-Ameri- 
cans and refusing to speak our lan- 



guage. And fef s gel the Htsfmnfcs to 
stop being Latm Americans and 
speaking Spanish. Let's aim at all be- 
ing Americans and speaking Ameh* 
can. 

Once we get kids starting iheir edu- 
cation right from year one we'll be 
turning out a whole new generation of 
high'tech-enthusod kids— and we'll 
have young hams by the millions — 
plus young computer hackers, and so 
on. 

What Are You Going to Do 7 

If you agree tfiat the above plan will 
work, will you do anything atxjul it — or 
will yoy nod and hope someone else 
will do something? As a product of our 
school system where you've been 
trained since day one not to cause 
trouble, where you were squashed by 
teacher intimidation and humiliation, I 
can understand why it might be diffi- 
cult for you to actually do something — 
like write to your two senators and 
your represenlatives, maybe sending 
them a copy of my plan. 

How atx^ut your state senators and 
legislalofs — know any of them? 

if there are any of my ideas thai 
you disagree with or don't think will 
work, drop me a line. The above is a 
very abbreviated description of my 
plan, so I've had to leave out alt of my 
references and extended explana- 
tions, rd list a faibtiography, but I doubt 
many of you will want to go to the ex- 
pense and time lo get and read so 
many tXK)ks. J must admit that few of 
my educaiional plans are original — 
most have been tested arwi found to 
wo he superbly — some in hundreds of 
schools. 

Now U we can gel rkj of poverty, in- 
ner city gangs, crime and drugs, about 
all we'll have to worry about is health 
care and the national debt. HI start 
working on those next week. 

Exporting Jobs 

More arKl more unskilled and low- 
skined jobs are t>eing exported to low- 
er-wage countries. The displaced 
American workers are alt upset and 
are pashtng us to 'buy Amencan.* 
Where this means buyrrtg lower-quali- 
ly products for higher prices, this is not 
entirely realistic. As world transporta- 
tion costs drop and world communica- 
tion systems improve, more and more 
low-Skill jobs are going to move to low- 
wage countries. 

So what do we telt ihe $12 an hour 
automobile worker who*s been re- 
p(&ced by a Mexican who's working for 
$1 an hour? He's madf htere he's tieen 
doing hts job. obeying th« union rules 
for the last 20 years, and suddenly the 
plant is cbsing. 

One answer is not what the angry 
unemployed worker wants to hear. We 
might ask him how much of his spare 
time he's spent In educating himself 
vs. how much he's spent bowling, 
watching TV. drinking with his buddies 
in the neighboriiood bar, buying RVs, 
going on vacations, and so on? Has 
he been kiafing for 20 years and rx>w 
is suddenly faced with having to pay 



for that wasfing of his life? How much 
should ttie government be responsible 
for bailir^ out people wtio have made 
no effort to protect themselves against 
Changes the tutu re might bring? When 
the auton>obile came along was it the 
government's responsibility to save 
the buggy whip manufaclurers and 
their employees? 

If instead of wasting aEI o( their 
spare time the angry displaced work- 
ers had Invesied even a small amount 
of their time in building other skills, the 
moving of tiiefr jobs to f^exkx> or Chi- 
na wokM be an irtconvenience, hot a 
disaster. Coukl they have taken a mail 
order course in accounting, real es- 
tate, telemarketing, selling, relngerator 
repair, electronics, and developed al- 
ternative skills? Could they have in- 
vested some time in a hobby with po- 
tential business applications? Amateur 
radio, besides being lun and a rela- 
tively inexpensive hobby, also can 
lead to employment in repairing con- 
sumer electronics* computers, security 
sates and service, facsimile. pa9ir>g, 
radio tsmadcasting, and so oa 

Learning to play an instnjment can 
provide not just a safety net fob, but 
also provide a fun spare-time income. 
Learning to write means developing 
another skill which is in desperately 
short supply— one which provides 
many opportunities for spare-time 
earnings. This can easily lead to mak* 
ing money with desktop-publishing- 
produced newsletters. 

One has to be almost bfind TK>t to 
see what's happening. The low- skill 
manufactydng pb& are moving to low- 
wage countries. More and more of 
them are going to go. leaving bewil- 
dered tow-sKill, high- wage workers be- 
hind demanding that the government 
do something. Senator Kennedy will 
Introduce bilts to stop this carnage and 
to force manufacturers to pay higher 
wages for poorer work. President 
Bush will "understand the pam" these 
displaced workers are suffenng. 

Woi^e. as more immigrants arrive, 
willing to work tor almost anythir>g rn 
order to gel started, even low-skilt ser- 
vice jobs are going lo be taken away 
from mkJdie-class Americans arKi tak- 
en over by people wifiing to work for 
Eess. And I don't see any sign of our 
building a Groat Wall across our Mexi* 
can border, so weVe going to have 
plenty of immigranls for a long time to 
come. 

How About The Unions? 

Union membership tias been dwin- 
dling for many years. Their ability to 
protect low-skill, high-pay jobs is tieing 
blown away by foreign competition. 
Unions were needed in the late 19th 
and early 20th centuries, when some 
manufacturers took terrible advantage 
of workers. But, having watched ttie 
printing and stagehand unions at wori^ 
c4ose up. the cure has turned oul to be 
as bad as the disease in some in- 
stances. 

When t worked at WPIX rn New 
York as a cameraman, I watched the 
stageJiands drawing amazing salaries 



78 73 A/na/et/rffad/o Today* August, 1992 



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73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1992 79 



for complelely unskilled work. Thetr 
ymon was closed, allowing lew but the 
sons of union members to join. They 
had a dosed siiop with every theater tn 
fown, plus the TV stations. So thare I 
was, a skilled engmeer and camera- 
man* making orke-fourth the stagehand 

When I sorted publishing 73 in 1960 
I had it prinied t>y a union printer — 
which was all there was available. I 
watched 4Q'yeaf veteran printers who 
were drawing as much as those stag^ 
hands and ur>at>le to specify type to tit 
into an ad. They'd have the type set 
over and over until it finally (iL There 
was no way to fire these dummies, so 
the printir>g company eventuatly built a 
n@w plant in Connecticut and closed 
their Manhattan plants mainty to get rid 
of them^ 

I watched one New York newspaper 
after another being put oul ot business 
by union strikes. The unions fought ev- 
ery cost-cutting effort by the papers. 
When Varityper came along wjth a 
faster and less expensive way to sel 
type the unions refused to let newspa- 
pers u$$ it. ir you re not familiar with the 
railroad unk?n battles to preserve (ealh- 
erbeddifig. you need to read some his* 
lofy. 

The Reader's Digest has printed 
endless stories of union vidousness 
dyriog strikes, Killing people, destroying 
buildmgs, cars, buses and trucks. The 
chap livtng next 6Qor to me when I was 
a kid had had both of his legs broken by 
the union, crippling him for life. He'd 
been a ship's captain and. under orders 
from the shipping line, tried to hire 
scabs when the union struck the line. 

The automobile unions have to 
share in the responsibiJity for the loss ot 
so much of our car industry, Their semi- 
skilled workers were making over dou* 
ble the average American wage — in ad- 
dition to turning out shoddy cars— mak- 
ing i1 easy for the Japanese to com- 
pete. Yes, the Detroit car execs share 
in the blame for what happened, with 
their lack of foresight and lousy plan- 
mng. 

With today's worker mobility, and the 
export of low- skilled jobs, it may be titne 
!o reconsider the rote unions should be 
playing. Just as we7e seeing the weak- 
ness ot the adversarial approach to 
business and government relations, 
perhaps we shotJd consider son^ way 
for unions, management and govern^ 
ment an to work toward a cooperative 
consensus which will help make Ameri- 
ca more competitrve. 

In ih% meanwhife it might be helpful 
for a few million low-skill American 
workers to be encouraged to come to 
grips wsth the way the world is changing 
and understand the importance of build- 
ing alternative skills and mterests. 
There's never going to be a big market 
for people with great memories lor 
baseball statistics or positions open for 
soap opera watching. Watching most 
TV. sports and games is a way of get- 
ling through life without having to think 
or do anything. These fight off the bore- 
dom of jusi sitting around. The rewards 
are so meager as to be worthless. Dilto 



99% of news watching and, at teas! in 
my perspective, reading newspapers. 

What should we be doing with our 
time? If we think in lerms of developing 
martcetable skil^ we won't go far wrong. 
And if we can lie these into a hobby, alt 
the better. Computer programming, for 
those invotved. ts exciting fun. It's in- 
credibly e reacting, whk:h is part ol the 
tuFi- Photography makes a greai hob- 
by—plus it offers plenty of opporluntties 
for making money. Many hobbies can 
be escalated into smat^ businesses. 
We've got hundreds of iiam radio oper- 
ators who've started their own busi- 
nesses and are doing fine. They're not 
really entrepreneurs, they re more inlef- 
ested in having iheir own business and 
not having to work for someone else. 

I tend to encourage people to get in- 
to desktop publishing with a Macintosh 
system stnce it's relatively inexpensive 
and easy to learn to use. There are 
needs for so many publications that I 
doubt a week goes by that i don't come 
up with a niche that desperately needs 
hlling. I'd love to start a new magazine 
a month— if \ could find people with the 
skills to tum em ouL I've got plans for 
one in the cor^struction induslry, one in 
the vacation business, a couple in edu- 
cation « a couple political, Iwo for the 
video industry, and so on. So wtiere do 
I find people who ve skills in selling^ 
writing, editing, photography, advertis- 
ing, promotion, maii order, and so on? 

Making TT^ Tine 

Changing habrt patterns is difficult. 
Ask any fat person who's tried to diet— 
and they ali have — and they've all 
failed, elst they wouldn't still be tat. 
Habits are tough to break-^articutarly 
bad habits. And this obviously holds for 
the habits preventing people from de- 
veloping skills and building knowledge. 
Our educational system has exacerbat- 
ed this problem by rewarding us quickly 
for small achievements. This has result- 
ed in a generation (or two) of Ameri- 
cans who find it difficult to concentrate 
on long-term goals. Getting thin, no 
matter what headlines you see in the 
supermarket tabloids, takes a tong-term 
commitment. So the more determirted 
dieiers take off a lew pounds and then 
quickly t>loal up again. The less deter- 
mined don't make it past the nearest ice 
cream store. 

Just imagine how much lime you'd 
have if you dkJn^t waste it with activities 
which have no ksng-rartge beneftts for 
you. Gone would be the six-packs. 
Gone would be the ball games. Gone 
would be sitcoms. Gone would be 
soaps. Gone would be a lot ot idle 
chitchat. Gone would be 98% of the 
movies. Gone would be a tot of pop mu- 
sic, pop books, and pop magazines 
such as People and $elt if you cu I out 
your wasted time, how much would you 
have available to build your skills? How 
much could you devote to your kids and 
their education? How much to your 
marriage? How much even to building 
your career? CouJd you spend some 
time teaching? We are in desperate 
need ol elmers to help prospective 
flams learn about electfonk^ and ama- 





10-10 NO. 56412 



George H* Berger 

24$7 Gallius Lane 

Valtey Springs, Ck 

95252 



Caii^fer«3 County 



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teur radio, Of course, i I you only memo- 
rited the answers 1o get your ticket. 
youVe not going to be much of an 
etnier+ 

First, let me explain that from your 
letters and talking with you on the air, 1 
know that 90% of you are painfully ufie- 
ducated in electronics and radio theory. 
I've offered tnany times to increase ttie 
number of technical articles in 73. with 
virtyally no positive response. When I 
ask lor a show ot hands during my 
hamfest talks I Irnd that hardly any 
hams understand how digital oommunt- 
cations works — or packet— or even 
satellite. 

Yes, I know, amateur radio is a hob- 
by, so why bother learning anything 
more than where the mike jack and an- 
tenna terminals are located on your rig? 
You're busy being a iawyer, doctor, 
truck driver or whatever and don't have 
time to become an eiectronic engineer. 
Bui what happened 1o your spirit of ad- 
venture? Did your parents tail to help 
you learn the excitement of e imploring 
new ideas? it's tremendous fun to get 
involved with slow-scan or 2 meler SSB 
DXing. tt's fun to get involved with RT- 
TY and get together with other RTTY- 
ers. I still get letters from the RTTY 
friends I made back in 1949 — even 
frofn one now living in V85, rf you know 
where ttial is. 

Computers are terrtt^ly complex, but 
it doesn't take a genius to cope with 
them and leain how they woric, right on 
down to the microprocessor chips. Like 
successful dieting, all tl takes to get 
way ahead of 99% of tt>e people in un- 
derstanding and working with comput- 
ers is the determination to actually do it. 

Can we gel across lo the low- skill 
workers the precariousness of their 
jobs? Can we get tliem involved in ac- 
tivities which will bail thorn out when the 
future finally catches up witii them? If 
amateur radio seems too complicated 
tor them, they might take up woodwork- 
ing, metaEworking or some other craft 
which will build a marketable skill if 
they can team to fix VCRs their future 
will be very secure. I've got a stack of 



'em they can start with. But you know, 
though we like to posture and brag in 
front of people about our technical hob- 
by, we all know that getting a hiam tk:kel 
depends more on persistence than Dri^ 
liance. We've atl tieard some of fhe Ir- 
censed dummies we've ^l braying on 
the air — we just prefer nol to let the 
work] kr>ow about em. Thank heavens 
they're few in number, so we just give 
them a wide berth when we hear them. 
Anyway, the next time you see a 
news program with oul-of-work people 
railing against our buying foreigrvmade 
products and putting them out of work, 
just think a little about their stupidity in 
nol seeing this coming and planning for 
it. Our exports are getting close to our 
imports in volume, so we have no legiti- 
mate complaint about imports . Our ef- 
forts to limit imports are a disaster. 
We're paying almost $250,000 for every 
automotive job we've saved by iimiting 
Japanese car imports. Phooey 

Teapot Tempests 

The ham newsletters have been 
scraping the barrel lately. Like f^rin- 
stance the FCC, which has been relus- 
ing lo issue speciat calls, got forced by 
the USIA into issuing one for the VGA's 
SOth anniversary: K3V0A. Sigh. And a 
judge awarded N5DA StO.OOO from 
N5EWD for some names fie ^s called 
over the local repeater. Oh yes. the 
West Coast lARN director quit after an 
abiisive call from Baxiof And WA6ITF 
is pissed at Baxter lor messing with his 
news reports. An average week. 

With KV4FZ presumably QRT after 
his court conviction. I wonder how the 
mess he generated on 14.313 is pro- 
gressing. I suppose there's no real 
hope of getting Congress lo grant a 
special exemption from prosecution for 
blowing away the rest of the BARF 
gang. It's the lack of reasonable loop- 
holes in our laws that are making the 
Mafia so successful. II we could attract 
some Sicilian hams, perhaps we could 
get our bands cleaned yp. Lord knows 
the AHBL seems to have absolutely no 
interest whatever in the problem. 



80 73 Amateur Radio Today* August. 1 992 



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Special events 

Ham Doings Around the World 



Listings are free ot charge as space pBnnfts. Please send us your Spedat 
Event iwo months in advance of the tssue you wani it to appear in. For exam- 
ple, if you want it to appear m the Jamiary issue, we shoutd r^ieive if i)y Octo- 
ber 31. Provide a dear, concise summary of the essential details aix}t/t your 
SpGCfat Event. ChGck Sp&ciat Events in message Area 011 on our BBS (603- 
924-9343), for listings that were too ia{0 to g&t into pubtscation. 



ANNOUNCEMENTS 

PROVIDENCE, Hi The NN 1 U TigsU 

ing Group will conduct VE Exams ev* 
ery 2nd Thursday ot the month at 7 
PM at the American Red Cross Bidg., 
150 Waterman Ave., Providence Rl. 
WaikHns, Bring a ptcture ID and one 
other ID, your license and copy, same 
for CSOE that you need to upgrade 
and B copy of Form 610 submitted for 
Mo vice license. NN 1 U Testing Group 
wilj administeT the test to handicapped 
personsjn their home, within 30 miles 
of Providence, 1( necessary, contact 
Judy KClHt, (401} 231-915€. 

BOULDER, CO Ttie Boulder VE 
Team will conduct VE Exams the 2nd 
Monday of mosl months at St. Mary 
Magdalene Episcopal Church, 
Healherwood Dr and Cambridge St,< 
Boulder CO. Please bring b picture ID 
and one olher ID; a check or money 
order payable to *ARRL-VEC' tor 
$5.40; the original of your current li- 
cense, a any; originals of appticable 
Certiiicaies ot Successful Completion 
ot an Examination if you claim credit 
tor any test elements; a copy of the 
FCC S10 you submitted if you ciaim 
credit for a Novice license not yet re- 
ceived; soft pencits and a calculator. 
For inio, and to pre^register, call Bar- 
bara McCfune N0BWS, (303} S30- 
2903. Pre-registmiion is pretended, bul 
walk'ins are welcome. 

AUG 2 

SUGAR GROVE, IL The Fox River 
Radio Leagues 1992 Hamfest will be 
held at Waubonsee Community Col- 
lege. Ri, 47 at Haftef f^d., Sugar 
Grove IL (5 miles fslW oJ Aujura), slart- 
irtg at 8 AM, Set-up Sal. after 7 PM 
and Sun. 6 AM-d AM. Flea Market. 
VEC Exams at 10 AM. Yoo must bring 
your original FCC license, a copy of 
your FCC license, and a photo ID. Ad- 
vance ticl^ets $4/3 Stubs; at the gate 
$5/1 Stub. Indoor tables $10/8', Free 
parking. Camp grounds nearby. Free 
Tailgate spaces. Talk- in on 145.470 - 
600 W9CEQ- Commercial vendors 
please call (70S} 564-1806 for into. 
Advance registration deadline is Juty 
15th. 

Randolph, OH The Portage ARC. 
Inc., (ARRL affifialed) will sponsor its 
7th annual Hamfair at the Portage 
County Fairgrounds, just off Interstate 
76 between Akron and Youngstown, 
Gates Will be open trom 8 AhA-A PM, 
Advance tickets S3. S5 at the gate. 
Children under 12 free. Flea Market 
$3 per space. Indoor tables 58 ea. 
Computer hofafeyists welcome. Talk-in 
on 145.39 {negative offset). Contact 
Joanne Sotak KJ30/8, Portage 
ARC, inc., 9971 Diagonal ftd., Man- 
tua OH 44255. TeL (216} 274-6240, 

ESCANABA, Ml The Upper Penlnsu- 



ja Hamfest/Computer Show, spon- 
sored by The Delta County ARS Inc.. 
will te held trom 9 PM-^ PM EDST at 
the Escanatia Area High-School. The 
I>ella County Tourism & Convmxtion 
Byr^u. Elks Lodge, and Delta County 
Chamber of Commerce, are co-hosl- 
ing this event. ARRL sanctioned^ 
Packet, ATV. model airplane demos- 
Set-ups 6 AIVl-9 AM. Provide your own 
power cords, lighting equip., and iiter- 
ature. Each vendor will be expected to 
donate prizes for the fialt-houriy raffle 
from 9 AM-4 PM. The show wJiJ pro- 
vide tables, chairs and benches, elec- 
trical outlets (first come, first serve). 
There v^ an application fee ot $50 pef 
vendor per entry. Tables S6 ea. Out- 
side Flea Marekt $6 por auto-sized 

space. For Info contact Hamfest 
Commiftee, 0,C.A.RSv PO Box 923, 
Escanaba Ml 49629. 



AUG 8 

HUNTINGTON, WV The Tri-Stale 
ARA, Inc, VE Team will sponsor VE 
Exams starting at 10 AM at Our Lady 
of Fatima church school class rooms, 
located at 545 Morway Ave., Hunting- 
ton WV. All lest sessions will be W5Y1 
testing sessions. (This date and toes' 
tion Is tentative, please call for con- 
firmation,) Car^didates for new or up* 
grade licenses should bring a photo 
to, copy ot current license or ong^nal 
CSCE. and a completed Form 610 
(Form 610 wilt be available at the test 
session). Walk-ins OK. Arrange to ar- 
rive by 9:15 AM in order to register 
and have ID and Form 61 Q checked 
pnor to ej^amination. For into contaci 
Jim Baker K8KVX. (304) 736^542. 

BEND, OR The Central Oregon Ra- 
dio Amateurs will hold their 3rd Annual 
Hamfair at Sunrise Village at ML 
Bachelor, SW of Bend, from 9 AM-4 
PM. Free secured overnight parking 
for seE( contained RVs, VE Exams 
from 9 AM -Noon, pre-rcgistration only. 
Send FCC Form 610. a copy of cur- 
rent license if applicable, arxJ a check 
for S5.40 payable to ARRUVEC to: 
CORA, PO Box 723, Bend OR 
97709. Deadline is Jyly 15th. FJea 
Market Presentations. Seminars. Ad- 
vance tickets $S by Juiy 15th; $7 at 
the door. Tables $10. Tailgate S2. For 
tickets/info, contact Don Harrington 
N7tON, 69706 W. Parkway Meadow. 
Sisters OR 37759. Tef, (503) 549- 
79S1. 

AUG 9 

PEOTONE, IL JhQ Hamfesters RC, 
Inc.. will sponsor their 58lh Annual 
Hamfest/Computer Festival at the Will 
County Fairgrounds from 6 AIVf-3:00 
PM (exhibits open at 8 AM). Set-up 
Aug. eih from 6 PM-Midnight. Com- 
mercial exhibitors welcome. Reserva- 



tions close July 20, 1992. Electricity 
available outside the Exhibit bfdg.; $10 
plug-in fee by Fairground, t^onatiofi $4 
advance. S5 at the gate: under 12 
years free. Talk-tn on T46.64- STARS 
and 146.94- KARS. For reservations 
send SASE and check to David E 
Brasei NF9N, 7528 W. 109th Place, 
Worth tL 60482. TeL (708} 448-9432. 

FRAIMKFORT, KY The ARRL Central 
Kentucky Hamfest, co- sponsored by 
the Bluegrass ARS, inc., and the Cap- 
ital ARC, will be held from 3 AM^ PM 
at Western Hilts High School, Exit 53 
oft 1-64, Fiankfoft KY. License Exams, 
technical forums, oofnmefciat exhibits, 
are in air conditioned facilities. Outside 
FEea Market space, tree with paid ad- 
mission, for each person over 12 
years oi age. Tickets $5 In advance^ 
S6 at the gate. Tables in commercial 
vendors area are $15 each if prepaid 
t>efore July I5th, $25 each after July 
15th. For info. tkAets. SASE to Bobby 
Foiph KB4QNH, 2117 Winterherry 
Bd., Lexinglon KY 40504 or call 
(606) 278*7570 eves, 

AUG 15 

AMARILLO, TX The Panhandle ARC 
will hold the;f annual Golden Spread 
Kamfest at the Amarillo Civic Center, 
400 S. Buctianan (in downtown Amar- 
illo) on Aug. 15th. Handicapped ac- 
cessible. VE Exams. Advance tickets 
S6, S7 at the door, Tables are S6. Call 
Leiand Carpenter N5VRN, (806} 352- 
8759, or write to Got den Spread 
HamfesU PO Box 1524, Mmaritio TX 
79105-1524. 

AUG 15-16 

ALBUQUERQUE, NM The Duke City 
Hamfesl will hold an Event at Mew 
Mexico National Guard Armory, 600 
Wyoming NE, Albuquerque MM, To 
get there, take the 1-40 South 
Wyoming exit: the Armory is 3 blocks 
on the left. Swap Meet. Technical 
classes. VE Exams. For more into, 
write to Duke City Hamfest, PO Box 
6552, Albuquerque NM 67197. 

HUNTSVILLE, AL The 1992 
Hunts villa hiamlest will t>e held at the 
Von Braun Civic Center in downtown 
Huntsville. Doors wilf open bolh days 
at 9 AM. Activities will all be held un- 
der one roof in air-conditioned facili- 
ties. Dealer Show. Flea Market. Tech- 
nical forums. MASA Space Exhibits, 
Ladies' and childrens' activities. 
Evening banquets for the entire family. 
Adult admission is $5 for tx}th days; 
children admitted free. Talk-in by 
K4BFT (•'Big Fat Turkey') on 
146.34/.94. Call (205} 880-8004 or 
FAX (205} 534-5557 lot more into. 

AUG 16 

CAMBRIDGE. MA The MIT Radio 



Society, and the Harvard Wireless 
Club, will hold a Flea Market from 9 
AM-2 PM at Albany and Main St^ 
Cambridge MA. Admission $2. Free 
otf-street parking. Covered tailgate 
area. Sellers $8 per space at the gate* 
$5 in advance (includes 1 admission). 
Set-up at 7 AM. For reservations and 
more info, cail (817} 253-3776. IVlaii 
advance reservations before the 5th to 
W1GSL, PO Box 82 M(T BR., Cam- 
bridge MA 02139. Talk-in on 146.52 ^ 
449.725^444 725 pi 2A - W1 XM rptr. 

LAFAYETTE, IH Tippecanoe ARA will 
hold the 21st annual Lafayette Ham- 
fest at the Tippecanoe County Fair- 
groundSp I8lh and Teal Rd. (fnd 25 
Soutti), Gates open at 1100Z. Setup 
Sat. 5 PM-8:30 PM. No renlai tables 
avaiiable. Admission 34, at the gate 
only. VE Exams. Activities for XYLs 
and children. Talk-in on 146.730/.52. 
Contact Bruc& Stewart N9GKE, 3tS 
Hamiiton St., West Lafayette tH 
47906. Tel. (317} 463-2379. 

GEORGETOWN, DE The Sussex 
ARA will sponsor the Original Delmar- 
va Hamfest at the Delaware Technical 
and Community College, starting at 8 
AM. VE Exams. Tailgating. CW Con- 
test, and more. Contact Bruce Patmer 
KD3WL, (302)'539<l78t or Bill Ham^ 
mond N3tOD, (302} 539*5780. Talk-in 
on 147.075+. ^4_a40. 

QUINCY, IL The Weslem tlltnols ARC 
will sponsor the 7lh Annual Tri-S tales 
Swapfesl at EagEes Alps Lodge, 3737 
N. 5th St. from 8 AM'2 PM, Outdoor 
tailgats area. Indoor vendor tables* 
ARRL VEC Exams. ARRL taiDle. XYL 
activities. Advance tickets S2.50, $3 at 
the door. Talk-in on 146. 63/. 03, 
l46.34/,94. Contact Jim Funk N9JF, 
c/o WlABa PO Box 3132, Ouincy tL 
62305-3132. Jet. (217 33&4191. 

AUG 20-23 

LOS ANGELES, CA The Los Ange- 
les Area Council of Amateur Radio 
Clubs, and the Orange County Councit 
of Amateur Radio Organizations, will 
sponsor the ARRL National Conven- 
tion at the Los Angeles Airport Marnoll 
Hotei. Exhibit hours are: Fri. 6 PM-9 
PM; Sal. 9 AM-5 PM; and Sun. 9 AM- 
1 PM. There will be an Industry Re* 
ception on Thurs. Fri. events include 
an ARRL Educational Worksiiop and 
Hospitality Suites. Sat.: Breakfast $12, 
Swap Tables. Alternative Programs, 
VE Exams* Luncheon Si 5, Banquet 
S30. Woutt Hong. Sun. events: Break* 
fast $12, Aucllon, T-Hunt; make 
checks payabte to HAMCON inc., PC 
Box 57075S, Tarzana CA 91356 

There will he ARRL a FCC Forums 
antenna and RFl seminars, DX anc 
contest forums, T-Huntlng, ATV, etc, 
Make your room reservations with the 
LAX Marriott at 1^00-228-9290, (be 



82 73 Amateur Radh Today • August 1 992 



sure lo mention *HAMCON 32*). 
There are special discourrt IraveJ (ares 
availabfe from Corona Travel Serkrice. 
Inc. (the officJaJ Convention travel 
agency): Calitomians contacl Mark W, 
Costa KB6GNZ, PO Box 2100, Coro- 
na CA 917 f$. TeL (714) 737-7000— 
outside CA call 1'8Q0-S22-CORP 
I Pre- registration before Aug, 1. $12; af- 
' lef Aug 1, $15. 16- year-olds and un- 
dfef. atimitted free. 

AUG 23 

I SAGINAW, Ml The Saginaw Valley 
ARA wjlJ sponsor a Ham Radio Swap 
and Computer Fair at the Saginaw 
Civic Center starting at 8 AM. Set-up 

I at 6 AM. The Swap will be Cocaied 
west o* 1-75, two miles along the l-ezs 
Bypass. From Exit 2. follow the signs 
to the ctvlc center Advance tickets S2. 
$3 at the door. Advance tables 510, 
$15 ai ttie doot Send paymenis with 
SASE \o SVARA Swap Commiitee, 
PO Box 1783, Saginaw ti/ff 48605- 
1783, Admission is WOTinciuded with 
purchase of tables. Unpaid Reserved 
Tables wiil be resold at 9 AM. For info 
Cali (S17) 781-3724. TaiK-in on 
147.240. 

ST CHARLES. MO The St, Charles 
ARC wiH sponsor HAMFEST92 at 
eianchette Park m St. Charles MO 
from 6:30 AM-3 PM, Forums and Li- 
cense Exams (10 AM). Free admis- 
sion and pa rising. Handicapped park- 
Ing available. Fte for Fiea Market 
space. Dealers welcome in air-condi- 
ironed hall. Tal*c*in on 146.67 and 
444,65 rptrs, and 146 52 simplex. 
Contact Ron Ochu KOOZ, i^S Crick- 
tewoQd, SL Peters MO 63376, T&L 
(314) 278-2570, or call Eric Koch 
NFQQ, (3114) 946-0948 eves. 

MARYSVILLE. OH The Union Count/ 
ARC will sponsor their 16th Annual 
MarysvlJle Ham lest/Computer Show at 
the Fairground in MarysviHe OH (near 
CoJumbus). Overnight camping with 
electric and water hook-ups wifl be 
available on a first come basis. Free 
entertainmeni Sat. night. Undercover 
areas and buildings for set-up. lO' % 
10' space S5. Commercial vendors* 
please aci fast to reserve space. Ad- 
mission $4 advance^ $5 at the gate. 
Contact Gene Kfrby W8BJN, 13613 
US 36, Marysvitte OH 43040. TeL 
(513) 644-0468 

CRYSTAL LAKE, IL T^e Tri-Coynly 
Radjo Group (ARC) wiiJ hold a Ra^ 
diO/Computer Fesl at Crystal Lake 
Holiday Inn, For info call Bob N9KXG 
or Ken N9KSP at (708) 658-1678 or 
(708) $58-3566. 

MULLICA HILL, NJ The Gloucester 

[bounty ARC wiil hold its 15th annual 
-lamtest/Compjter/ElecEronics Fair at 
he 4H Fairgrounds. Route 77. Ad^ 
zance tickets &3.50; SS at the gate. 
Tailgatirig S5 per space. Vendors S7 
jer table. ElectriGlty available. Set-up 
It 6 AM. General Admission at 8 AM. 
/EC Testing: Registration 9 AM-9;30. 
testing begins at 10 AM. Talk-in on 
1 47.78/. 18 and 223,06/324.66. Enjoy 
juf open-air Breakfast and Lunch. 
:ontacl GCARC, PO Box 370, Pit- 



man NJ 08071. or call (609) 478- 
4736. 

AUG 28-30 

VERNON, B.C., CANADA The 1992 
Sky High Hamfesi, sponsored by the 
Okanagan Valley Hamfest Assn., will 
be held at the Silver Star Mountain 
and Resort area. The event will t^ or- 
ganized by the North Okanagan FtAC, 
RV accomodations, hotels, restau- 
rants available. Non-Ham activities. 
For into, contact Sky High Hamfest, 
PO Box 1706, Vernon, B.C^, Canada 
V1T-6C3 

AUG 29 

NEWPORT, NH Newport Area Hams 
will host the Sugar River Amateur Ra- 
dio Symrr^r Festival Irom 7 AM -4 PM. 
Tfljlgaie Rea Market. VE Exams. Crall 
Fair. Book Sale. Special Event Demo 
Station, Outdoor Folk Concert a1 6:30 
PM. Flea Market admissfon: Sellers $5 
(set up at 7 AM): Buyers $2 {admitted 
at 8 AM), Taik-ln on 146,767.16. 
224.12/22.52 and 146.52. No tones, 
please. Contact Bruce C, Bedford 
KA10RB, 178 Summer St, Newport 
NH 03773. Tet. (603} 863-'i698 or 
Bob Boyd NICm, (603) 863-5383 

ROSEAU, MM The Lake Of the 
Woods Rptr Assn. Irx: , win sponsor a 
Hamfest ai the High School Gym. 
Highway #11 East. Set-up a: 8 AM. 
Doors open at 10 AM. Buffet Banquet 
at 4:30 PM. VE Exams. ATV & Packet 
demos Fiea Market. Auction. Tables 
free with advance registration. Admis- 
sion S10 all incL Reservations are 
necessary. Contact David Landby 
K80HAP Rt 3, Box 10, Warroad MN 
56763. TeL (218) 386-1092. Talk-in on 
147.09+ 

AUG 30 

MILFORD. CT VE Exams for all 
classes will be held at the Fowler 
Bldg., 145 Bridgeport Ave.. MiJfOfd CT, 
beginning at 12 noon. Walk-ins wel- 
come. For mfo call Gary NB1M, (203) 
933-5125, or Dick WAiYQE, (203) 
874-1014. This testing ts sponsored 
by the Coastline Amateur ARA. 

LEBANON. TN The Short Mouniain 
Repeater Club wili sponsor a Hamfest 
at the Cedar of Lebanon State Park. 
US Highway 231 , seven miles south ol 
MO. Outdoor facilities only Exhibitors 
bhng your own tables Space available 
on a first come basis. Free admission. 
Talk- in on 146.91. Contact Mary AUce 
Fanning KA4GSB, 4936 Danby Dr^ 
NBshvitfe TN 37211, Tet. (615) 832- 
3215. 

SPECIAL EVENT STATIONS 

AUG 

CHANNEL ISLANDS, CA KK6EK will 
operate during research expeditions 
for tlie month of August, lo celebrate 
the I5th annivefsary oJ the foundJr>g of 
Cordell Expeditions, a volunteer re- 
search group that was responsibie for 
creating the Cordeit Bank National 
Marine Sanctuary. Operation will be 



SSB. principally on 20m, usually 
14,328. For sped at expedition QSL 
and info, contact KK6EK, CordeU Ex- 
peditions, 4295 Wainut Blvd., Waf- 
nut Creek CA 94596. 

AUG 4-5 

PADUCAH, KY The Paducah ARA. in 
conjunction with the Paducah Police 
Dept,, will operate W4NJA. to com- 
memorale the 1st Annual Paducah 
Police DepL DA.R.E. Day camp. Op- 
eration will be from 1400Z-2100Z. 
"D.A.R,E/ Stands for Dmg Abuse Re- 
sistance Education, and the day camp 
will be looking for contacts with ali am- 
ateurs, expectally other D,A.R.E. par- 
ticipants. Operattons will be in the iow- 
er 25 KHz of the 20m phone and the 
lower 50 kHz in ttie Novice 10m phone 
bands For a special D.A.R.E. OSL, 
send an SASE to John Hudson 
KC4HGX, 3214 Lonne Ln., Paducah 
KY 42001. 

AUG 4-7 

BLOOMINGTON, IL The Central IL 
RC will Operate W9AML 1700Z-2400Z 
Aug, 4-7. in conjunction with the 
McLean Co. 4H Fair Opetation will be 
in ttie Generai portion of 80- 15m and 
the Novice portion of lOm. For Q ST 
send QSL and SASE to CIRC, PO 
Box 993, Btoomington IL 61702. 

AUG 8 9 

MOUNT DAVIS, PA The Somerset 
County ARC will operate Station 
KC3XD Ifom the highest point in PA. 
at Mount Davis. Operatk)ns will be on 
the Lower 50 kHz oi the General 
plTone bands of 10-80m, as condTltons 
allow. Send QSL and SASE to Sher- 
man Gary KC3XD, 708 Cassefman 
St, Confluence PA 15424. 

AUG 11-16 

SANDUSKY, OH The Firefands ARA 
wilJ operate Station WBaLLY Aug. 11 
thru Aug. 16, during the Erie County 
Fair al the Heritage Bam to commem* 
orate the 200th anniversary ol the 
Connecticut Legistalure setting aside 
the Fire lands (in 1792), to compensate 
people I hat were burned out of their 
homes by the Brittsh during the Revo- 
lutionary War Operation will be in the 
lower 50 kHz of the General phone 
subbands on 80m, 40m, 20m. 17 m, 
t5m, 12m. and starling on the lOm 
Novce phone sut^Mnds (28.400) daily 
during the Fair Radiograms for the 
Em County area will be accepted via 
WB&LLY WBSJUI packet station. 
For certificate, send 9x12 SASE with 
two postage stamps affixed; QSL with 
contact number to Tim N8AHK, 1307 
Fifth Street Sandusky OH 44870- 
42Q1. 

AUG 14-16 

SEATTLE. WA The Boeing Employ- 
ee's ARC will operate a Special Event 
Station from the Museum of Flight, to 
commemorate the 50th Anniversary of 
the 1st Flight of B59. Frequencies: 
28.400 MHz, 21.360 MHz and 14 280 
MHz. Operating time will be 1700- 



240O UTC. A QSL cand with a black 
and while glossy pt>oto oi the B2 9 in 
flight will be sent to all who contact the 
Soeing ARC Speciai Event Station, 

AUG 15-16 

VANCOUVER.WA The Clark County 
ARC will operate Station W7AIA from 
tt^ Evergreen Flying Field, just east of 
Vartco Liver WA, to help celebrate the 
33rd annual Antique Aircraft Fly- in. 
Operation will be in the lower portions 
of the 40m, 20m and 15m bands 
(phone); they aJso expect some opera- 
tion on the 75m phone band during 
the night. A very nice certificate wili be 
available. Send your SASE (only) to 
CCARC, PO Box 1424, Vancouver 
WA 98668. 

AUG 22-23 

LOS ANGELES, CA SE Stanon 
W1AW/6 will operate from the 1992 
ARFlL National Convention Aug, 22 
and 23. Frequencies: General sub- 
band of 80m, 40m, 20m and 15m; 
Novice siJbband of lOn; and the 
VHF/UHF bands. For a certificate, 
send QSL and a 9 x 12 SASE to Ham- 
can, Atin: Dick Bruno NBtSY, PO 
Box 570756, Tarzana CA 91356. 

AUG 29 

WHENTHAM, MA N1APE and NIIPR 
will operate from the Wrentham MA 
State School Cracker Barrel Fair and 
Hot Air Balloon Festival, Aug 29, 
1400Z-2200Z, Frequencies: -7.243. 
14.243, 21.343, 28.343, QSL and 
SASE for certificate to NIAPE, 8 
Abenaki Trait LliUefon MA 07460. 

AUG 29-30 

WELLSBORO, PA The Tioga County 
ARC wiil operate Station W03C from 
1400Z Aug 29-1 ei30Z Aug. 30. to cele- 
brate the 99lh anniversary of the 
Pennsylvania Park System. Operation 
will be in the lower portions of the 
General 80m, 40m, 20m, 10m. For 
QSL send QSL and SASE to Darlerm 
Rahn W03C, Box 200 H.D. #6, 
Wetlsboro PA 16901, 

SEP 4-5 

BRADY. TX The Heart of Texas Ham 
Operators" Group (HOT HOG) of 
Brady, logelher with the 3M A.R.C. 
and the Brownwood ARC, both of 
Brownwood TX. virill operate Station 
WD5H from the 19th Annual World 
ctiampionship Barbecue Goat Cookoft 
and 15th Annual Arts & Crafts Fair at 
Richards Park in Brady TX. This oper- 
ation from the "geographic center of 
Texas" will take place primarily on 
SSB phone or about 28.325, 21.325, 
and 14.325 MHz, from 2000Z Sep 4- 
2000Z Sep. 5. Rag chews are wel- 
come. Some operators of Ihis station 
may move off Id other modes/'fnequen- 
cies at their discre&sion. Ask If you are 
Interested. For a certificate send your 
QSL and SASE lo HOT DOG, c/o Lar- 
ry W, Garens WDSH, 702 Bee St*, 
Brady TX 7682B-3014, 



I 



73 Amateur Ra^io Today * August. 1 992 83 



Bi NiMe^bei 27 on \ 

ARTER W BUY 



UMt^bet 27 on your Feedbacit card 



Tuiti you^ old ham and compuler gear into cash now. Sure, you can wail for a hanfest to 
Ify and dump i|, iwji you know you'll get a far mofe reaStstic price rf you fiave ifl oiit whe?ie 
100 .000 aciive mam poienMt buyers can ses it triadn ttie few tiundrBd N>caT hams who come 
t»y a flea marKe: latste Crieck yo;jr atlic. ^rage. ceoar ano c<cS6t sT^Hrg^ and get caEfi for 
]fOur rmm and compgier gear before it's loo Did to 5€^ You know you're not goir^ ID ys€ 4 
again, so why leave a tor yow widow to tfiraw out? Tlna^ stuff isnl getnng ani' younger! 

The 73 Flea Martcet. Ba^e^ 'n' &jy. costs you peani^ts (ahnost)— comas tn 35 c^ms a 
word ^or indFVKlusi fncMicornTfiefcial) ads and Sl.OQ a ward tor commercial ads. Don't plan on 
teliing a tong story, Use abbrevielions. cram it tn. But be honest. There are plenty of hams 
who love 10 ffif Things, so if it doesn't work, say so, 

f\^ake your list, Count the wonds, including your call, address and phone number. Include 
a check or your credri card nunrber and expiration. If yOuVe placing a commercial ad, iificlude- 
an add'tjonaj phone nuitiber, separate from your ad. 

This ts a monihty magazine, noi a dasiy new^^aper. so figure a coup^ montfts t>efore tfte 
acton starts. Vnen be prnpai^d. tf you get too m^y cal^s, you pnced it km, II you oonl get 
mar^ caits, too trigh. 

Ski gel busy. 6kn» the dost off. check everything out, make suie I sM wofSts rigfu and 
mayte you can heJ0 make a ham sure it stiil worlts rk^ and maybe you can tidp make a 
ham nevvcomer or retired old timer happy with that rig you're t\^ u^ing now. Or you miglii giet 
busy on your tomputeT and put together a fist of small gear^parts to s^nd to those interest- 
ad? 

Sand your ads and paymeni to Ihe Barter 'n' Buy, Sue Co I ben, 70 Rt, 202N. Peierbor- 
oygn NH 0345S and get set foi me phone calls* 



tprS^fcnbCi dassledstt Juty tG, t99Z. 

HAM RADIO REPAIR CENTER, quality 
wofkmar\sfiip. Softd slate of tube, all nnakes 
and models. Also repair HF amplifiets A-Z 

EliBclronic Repair, 3638 East, Indian School 
Rd, Phoenix AZ 35016. (602) 956-3024. 

BN8220 

REVOLUTTOMARY NEW World view firDe 
indicator* aaraaive and easy to use. De* 
signed ip u^lm§ a Souifi Po^ projectiofi of 
she entire earth with me tma zones co:or- 
coded in. A cooratnated coror^coded liand 
extends around tha circumference of the 
map. Simply rotate the eartti until youf tinne 
zone color coding l5 at your correc! time. In* 
stanHy. you have tJie total world times. (Ex- 
cellent for {^tck relerenang.) SIZE 8 1/2" x 
11". TO ORDER: PTtone (613) 345-1537, of 
send rtame ariid address, ctieque* M.C of 
VISA No. & expiry, date to: WORLD VIEW 
TIME INC., P.O. Box 2fi6, Brockvitle, On- 
tario. Canada K6V 5V5, FAX; (61 3 J 345- 
726'^, PRICE: $13.45 U.S.. SI 4.95 Canadh 
an {total cost Including taxes & shipping) 
World Patents and Designs. BNB222 

RNALLY HEAR those unreadatile signals 
biined tr rcise, frteteiodynes. tuner ifipef?. 
The REVOLimOfrlAHY n&w JPS audkjfiflef 
MIR- 10, digital sigjial processing, sample 
hook up, deep discounted $379.00 defiv- 
sredl Authiortzed dealer: Davis RF Co., RO. 
BoJt 230-S, Carlisle MA 01741. 24-HR. Or- 
ders : leOQ) 484-4002, code 135B. BNB 254 

KENRY RADEO 3K CLASSIC AMPUFIER 
ZS nirouqh 30 MHz. An^iifief is in show- 
room coTK^iKHi only 1 ye^ oklf All reason- 
afile olefs considered, Orcginaf cost S2,7(K). 
II puf^hased must p)Ck up yojr^it. Call Paul 
at (^ Oty 272-491 6> BNB255 

QRP KITS IN CANADAI CW Transceivers. 
Receivers, and more. Large SASE or Call: 
-CO flAOlO KITS." Box 1546, Bt^dford. On- 
tario. L3Z-2B8 CANADA. (416)-775-9119. 
BNfl433 

QSL CARDS- Look good itfith top quality 
pnnling. Ctioose standard designs or fu^ly 
ciistomired cards. Request ^ree brochure, 

samples (stamps appreciated) from Cnester 
QSLs^ 310 Commercial, Dept. A, Emporia 
KS 66801 . FAX (316) 342 4705 

BM&J34 

WANT Advanced Compiler Conlrols 
SHACKMAST^R 100 in good wortwig order. 
Top dollar fof f?iir»t condition. Rob. NOJR. 
319-277-1499- BN&435 



REVOLUTIOMARY HYBRID AERIAL 
WIRE: 168-Sira/wi copper "FLEX-WEAVF* 
™, #14. sirof>g. Ultra FteJcDie, ties m knots. 
nonsErelcn, wont njst/kink like copper wekJ. 
S36.95 firs I 275' (minimum), S-13/ft. There- 
attefi includes shipplngl Catalog SI .00, 
DAVIS RF Co,., P.O. Box 230-5, Carlisle MA 
01741. (300) +484-4002, code 1356. 

BNB 557 

COAX, GROUND RADIAL WIRE iowesi 
ccksL tog quality. I^Spec R&213. S.3a'ft.; 
RG^BX, S 19: RG-5B. S,18; LOW LOSS 
Belden equiv RG'9913. S-39: any lengths. 
Radiai •^'m #16. 339.50/1000 ft. includes 
shippingl immediate slilpment. CaTalog, 
SI. 00. DAVtS RF Co., PO Box 230-S, 
Carlisle MA 01741. (800) 4&4-4002. code 
1 35 6. BNB562 

TEST EQUIPMENT: giant 10 page list of 
sjrpiiiS RF EatNxatory equipm&nt all kinds, 
at So west prides. Don't rrnss this lisd Send 
LSASE. Also SERVICE MANUAL ItSl, sepa- 
rate LSASE piease, Joseph Cohen, 200 
Woo dside. Winthrop MA 021 52. BNB 563 

RIG REPAIR tjy 20-year ham. Fast, reasorr- 
aDIe. Skip WithiDW. 540^ S. Walden Slreei, 
Aurara CO ^)0t5. (303) €93h0997. 

BNB7D2 

reu PC VIDEO dhsitizer 64o by 4ao 

RESOLimON, 256 gray tevels, 389.98 De- 
mo dtsk, S3, Inforfnation. £L Golorbursi, 
Box 3091, Nashua HH03O61. 

BNB703 

ROSS" SSSS NEW Augyst (ONLY): KEN- 
WOOD rS'940SAT $2,049.90, TS^SOSAT 
$1,195.90. AT-230 3259-90, VFO-700S 
S149,9Q. iCOM D4AT S249.99. 735 
SS48-00. AG-35 $59.99. MFJ 525 S69.99. 
&15B S52.00. 127S S249.30. AEA PK- 
232MBX S304.90, PK-BS St 29.90. MP^64 
S69.99, ALLIANCE HD-73 SI 52.90, U-IOS 
$.51.90. ALL LIMITED TIME OFFER CALL 
OR SEND 2 STAMPS FOR MORE SPE- 
CIALS. LOOKING FOR SOMETHimi NOT 
LISTED OR HARD TO FIND? CALL OR 
WRETE. Over 9,000 ham-related items in 
stock for immedialB shipment MenUOf* ad. 
Prices cash, F.O.B. Preston. HOURS 
TUESDAY-FRIDAY 9:00 TO 6:00, 9:00 2:00 
PM MONDAYS. CLOSED SATURDAY & 
SUNDAY. ROSS DISTRIBUTING COMPA- 
NY, 78 SOUTH STATE, PRESTON ID 
B32 6a (208)852-0830. BNB707 

SEIZED GOODS, radios, sJereos, oomput- 
ers, arrd rnore E7y FBI. IRS. DEA Avaii^ile 
in yoi^r area new. CaJJ (800) 338-^89 Ert. 
(>6223. BNa7l1 



I 



GlAirr SOLAR PANELS 544.00 EA! Excei- 
ler^i Prces/SO'ar Equipirrent/ Accessories. 
Free Intormation/Send Sismped Envelope. 

Catalog S3. 00. To: Pak Rat Eieclronics. P.O. 
Box 690073, Houston TX 77259, (713) 893- 
0313, BNB715 

SIMPLEX REPEATERS S1 49.00! We man- 
yfactjre itiem ourselves. Pak Ra; Eleciron- 
ics. (713) 893^0313. BMB716 

ELECTRON TUBES: All types and sizes . 
TransmittiRQ, receiving, microwave . . . 
Large inventory = same day snipping. DaiEy 
Elecifon^cs. PO, Box 5029, Compton CA 

90£24, (800) 3^6-6667 or (213) 774-1255. 
8NB7t 9 

WE HAVE m AEA, Aslron, Butternut, Gall- 
book. Comet. Diamond. HiBO&r, Kantrc^scs, 
Larsen Amennas, MFJ, Radio Shack, Sm- 
ley. aniennas. Ten-Tec. v^lor aniinnas, 2Pd 
mora. Small town service with discount 
prices. Dandys. 120 N. Washington, 
Wellington KS 67152. (316) 326-6314. 
BNB722 

MINIATURE POLICE RADAR TRANSMIT- 
TER one mile rafjge, S4l assemated. 
S31 -00 kit. (219) 4*9-1711 . RO. Box 80096, 
Fort Way^ IN ^B89 g BNB725 

BUILD YOUR OWN WIRE AMTENNAS, 
parts. GROUND RADIAL W^RE. open-wire 
feedlines, copper- weld, msulaiors, coax, 
Dacron rope, baluns, etc, LOWEST 
PRICES. Catalog. S1.00. DAVIS RF Co,. 
P.O. Box 23Q'S. CarJjsle MA 01741. (800] 
464 ^002. code 1356. fflB726 

HAM RADIO REPAIR Experienced, r^^^ 
seJVica Rotert Hati Etectronics, 1660 McK- 
ee Ro . Suiie A, San Jose CA 95116. (406) 
729 8200, BNB7S1 

PICTURE QSL CARDS of your shack, etc., 
from your photo or black ink artwork. 500 
$28.00, 1,000 S44.50, Also non-pictdre 
cafds, Ctisiom printed cards, send specEfica- 
tions for estimate. Send 2 Stamps for ilius^ 
traied lltefalLire Ger^erous sample kn 32,00. 
hatf pouiid of sa/t^ies 33.00 Ratim's R02. 
Orchard Road. Coopersburg PA 18036. 
BNB756 

MAST OR BOOM MATERIAL T CD X .25" 

heavy wall aluminum. SASE; DougA/VS9W, 
Box 334 , Sioughion Wl 53589. BNB 757 

WANTED: HAM EQUIPMENT AND OTHER 
PROPERTY. The Rad^ Cbb of Junior Htgli 
School 22 NYC. Inc.. is a nonprofii orgartiza- 
tiort. granted 501(CJ(3) sm& by the HTS. in- 
corporated witti the goat of using the nieme 
of Ham Radio to further artd enhance the 
education of young people nationwide. Send 
your radio to school, your properly donation 
or financial support would be greatly appre- 
ciated and ackno wedged with a receipt ior 
your tax deducid>te conljibutjon. P^se look 
over wftatever irn wanted equipmer^t you 
may have, aiid caTf us. We will picit up or ar- 
range stii|^)tng. You will leoeive the tax de- 
ductjon, ijui most important, the privilege of 
knowrng that your gift really made a differ- 
ence in the educaifon and upbringing of a 
child. You are invited to check into the 
WB2JKJ "22 Crew" CLASSROOM NET, 7 
AM EST on 7,238 MHz or on 21-395 
ihrqugiiout the (lay^ Hope to meet aii of otf 
fnends in Los AngcJles at ttie ARRL National 
Convention, August 20-^. We will t^ pre* 
seating a forum on EDUCOM Write us at: 
The RC of JHS 22 NYC. INC.. PO. Box 
1052, New York NY 10002. Round the clock 
HOTLtNES: Voice (516) 6744072, FAX 
(5^ 5] 674-9600. BNB 762 

EUMINATE MULTIPLE NOrSE TOMES in 
your receiver audio output. The revofulion* 
ary new JPS nosch filtef. model *NF-60. Dig* 
ttaj Signal Processing simpte hook up. Un- 
Bie other No!ch Fibers, notches out multiple 
varying tones. Deep Discounted: SI 39.50 



delivered cofitinenial USJ {ELsev^here 
St SO 00 plus shipping ) Agthorized JPS 
dealer: Davis RF Co. P.O. Bok 230-S, 
Carliste MA 01741. 24-HR orders: (600) 
48 4-4002, code 1356. BNa763 

SOLAR POWERED HAWlS! The SunswilCh 
is a charge coniroller lo protect your batter- 
ies from over cnarge. Power MOSFETs are 
used, no relays! A^cmbjed tuned and test- 
ed S;^.96 piius 32.50 shipping, &vifig>n Efv 
ergy Systems. 2225 Mayflower NW. MassJ^ 
Eon OH 44647. 

BNB774 

GET YOUR PL259 COHNECTORS TO- 
DAYI Only S.35 each sold in lots of 100. Or- 
der now!!! Call or Write Foss Warehouse. 
2B9 Schenk Street North Tonawanda NY 
141204800)488-1^25. 

B^IO 

ENTREPRENEUiaAL INCUNED? Have an 
idea for a product? Need heCp proceediftg? 
Carlsbad Tecinnology Group can advise and 
assist you in turning your idea into reality. 
Call (or FAX) BdU Fellon, K7WLX. at (619) 
729-B741 or write to PO. Box 4126, Carls- 
bad CA 920 18-41 26. 

waeii 

SURPLUS SOLAR PANELS, 105 Watt se! 
S4fi9.00. unlrameo $300.00. ALL PAWELS 
5 YEAH WARRANTY. Visa/Masiercard. 
(60 2) 276-5083. 6NB81 2 

73 MAGAZINE INDEX 19G0-199Q. Book 
Si 5 or software S20. The world s largest 
(GO. 000 reference) amaieur radio tr.dex 
1909-1990. Software S85 QST. CO HR, or 
RADCOM mdices $10-520. Wnit; DIDAH 
Publishing. PO,B. 7368. Nashua NH 
03 060-7368 ^603) 876-3628. BNB 8 1 3 

FREE SHAREWARE AND HAM CATALOG 
for IBM or CoCo. Mors a code cDrnputer in- 
terfaces, S49.95. Dynamic Electronics, Box 
896. HanseJle AL 35640. 205-773-2758. 

BNB615 

DtGrTAL SWRa.rv:POW£R UrTEII. Assem- 
ble, Kit, or Plans, with Alarm and Sel 
Points, FREE informaiion. flUPP ELEC- 
TROHIGS.5403 Westbreeze, Fort Wayr>e IN 
46 804.291^432-3049. BNB831 

TELEX HY-^GAlNAntenna's, Rotors and Re- 
place me nl rotor parts, Cushcraft, Barker and 
Williamson. Penphex batteries, ARRL 
Boots. Pyramid power supplies. GRE scan- 
ner ampCitiers and converters. Surplus 
Tubes. Atkinson Jl Smith. 17 Lewis St 
Eatontown NJ 07724. 1800) 542-2247. 
15^835 

FCC COMMERCIAL LICENSE PREPARA 
J\OH RADIOTELEPHONE-RADIOTELE- 
GRAPH. Latest home study fast easy audk 
video. FREE details WPT Publicalions 1- 
80 0-800-758^. mas4o 

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS-etcheif 
dniled. ttn-plated. Single sided Si 25/sq 
rich. No setup charge. Send negative or ait 
work (SI 0.00 for negative). We can gener 

ate artwork from your schematfc. CHELCC 
ELECTRONICS, 61 Water SL Mayvllle fi\ 
1 4 7571^00 -388 B 5ZT BN 8342 

INEXPENSIVE HAM RADtO EQUIPMEIil 
Send postage stamp for Hst. Jim Bradi 
WMDSD, 3037 Audrey Dr., Gasionia NC 
28re4^ BNB89(1 

MORSE CODE MUS1C7 Yes rfs IruEf Nov 
the Morse code alphabet can be learnei 
and enjoyed while doing aerobics, jogging 
driving, or dancing, Ofder"RHYTHM 01 
THE CODE" cassette sir>gle hit today I Sem 
S5.95 (plus S2 SAH) lo "Kawa Produaions. 
PO. Box 319. Dept- St.. Weymoulh Mj 
021 88. For infQrT^.ation ser^t SASE 8N8 89g 

AMATEUR RADIO REPAIR!! AU makes I 
models, any age. S20.00 per hour-maxlmun 



84 73 Amateur Radio Today • August, 1 992 



labor per uM. SBO.OO, TELO (Dan), t3D2 S. 
Uplands Dr, Camano Island WA 98292. 
f206 ) 3S7-3558. BHB900 

COLLEGE SSSSS for ALMOST ANYONE! 

CALL -for your FREE copy of "tO Ways To 
SJretch Your Scholarship Chances" 1-SOO- 
524- 4916. (73 DE NX7T). BhJB 9Q1 

HEATHKIT NOSTALGIA-HeJive tie history 
of the company which cfeveJopeo and manu- 
fsctufed the popolar electronic kits. Pictures 
and stories of and by the people who vi^ere 
Involved. 120+ pages. Send S9.95 (WA resi- 
dents add sales lax) to Heaih Nostalgia. 
4320-1 96th S.W,. Suite B-m, Lynnvvood 
WA 9303a GNB903 

COMMUNICATIONS ATITS BEST! AR-900 
$239.00, AR-1000XC S399.00, AR-2500 
S439.00. AR-300O $969,00, Lowest prices 
on AOR Radio guaranteed. CB's, Scanners, 
Radar detectors, and more. Free Shtpping 
Visa/MC/AMEX, Turbo Electronjcs, RO. Box 
8034, H^cksvilie ISfY 11802. Inquiries: 516- 
93B-1946/Qfders1-600-33-TURBO.BNB905 

USED EPBOMS!!! CLEANED AND 
ERASED 27C126-1, $2,75; 27C256-2. 
S3.50; 27512-2, $5.00; 27C010-2, S8.00, 
Satisfaction guaranteed!!! Minirnum SS.OO 
order. Eproms, Dept. ST., PO Box 1931, 
Salenn MH 03079 or call (603) 898-2908. 
BNB906 

PILL BOTTLE AMTENNA TUNERI Realty 
works!! Plans-$3. DWM ENTERPRISES, 
1709 H. West, #103. Jackson ML 49202. 
BNB907 

EASYTERM, a user- friendly, full featured 

communicatJons program for the AEA 
PK232MBX and Kenwood digital radios. For 
more information on this S29,95 program, call 
1-600-336-7796 or write to: EASYTERM, % 
M.V. Henley's Inc., P.0, Box 21 S4, Edgartown 
MA 02539-2154, BNB909 



BATTERY PACK REBUILDING: SEND 

YOUR PACK i FAST SERVICE. ICOM: 
BP2/BP3/BP22 318,95, BP5.^BP3/BP23 
$24.95. BP24/BP70 $26.95, BP7 $29.95. 
KENWOOD PB21 $14,95, PB21H/PB6 
$19.95, PB25/26 $22.95, PB2/KNB3 S29.95. 
YAESU: FNB10/17 $22.95, FNB3/4MA 
S34.95. UNJDEN APX650 $29.95. APX1200 
$39.95: HEATH110 S26.95. ^'NEW PACKS": 
ICOM BP3(8O0 mAn) S39, 95, (1000) 
$49.95. (1200) $54.95, BP83 S29.95, BP84 
$42.95. YAESU: FNB2(500) S 19.95, (600) 
S23.95. FNB10S (1000) S42.95, 
FNB12S(600) S46.95, FMB1 7(600) $31.95, 
FNB4SL(750) $44.95. SANTEC: 142/1200 
S22.95. "U-DO-IT INSERTS" ICOM: 
BP3/BP22 $14.95, BP5 $20,95, BPB 
$19.95. KENWOOD: PB21H/24 $14.95, 
PB25y26 SI 7.95. TEMPO/S $20.95. YAESU; 
FNB10 314,95. FNB4/4A $26,95, A2- 
DEN/300 $14.95. FREE CATALOG. S4.00 
Shlpping/order, PA-i^6%, V\SA-M.IC +$3.00, 
CUNARD, R.D. S BOX 104, Bedforc PA 
1 55 22, (814) 623-7000, BNB 91 3 

WANTED; BUY S SELL Ail types of Elec- 
tron Tubes. Call toll free 1 {800) 421-9397 or 
1 (612) 429-9397. C S N ElectrDnics, HaroJd 
Bramstedt, 6104 Egg Lake Road, Hugo MN 
550 33. BNB9 1 5 

COMMODORE 64 HAM PROGRAMS 8 

disk sfdes over 200 Ham programs 
S16.95,/S.29 stamp gels unusual software 
catalog of Unities, Games, Adult and British 
Disks. Home-Spun Software, Box 1064-BB. 
Este ro FL 33959. BNB 9 1 7 

SLACK ENTERPRISES. Quality HD Anl In- 
sulators 1,^2" $2.95, 3/4" S3.9S. 1" S5.95. 
Cenier insulator $15.95 + shtpping. Wire 
Ant. Catalog $2.00. C/0 6. SJack, 101 Royal 
Park Drive, Apt, 2H, Oakland Park FL 
33309. BN8960 



ENGRAVING-CALL PINS-Walf/Oesk 
Clocks- Club Award Plaques/Trophres-Desk 
Holders-Pen Sets- Equipment l.D. Plates. All 
Prices 30-50% OfJ Retail. Send $3.00 For 
Catalog to: TR Enterprises, Box 36 B, Tyfar 
HiJI PA 18469. BNB9S2 

AERIALS! Great antenna book by Kurt N. 
Sterba SI 0.00, $2.00-S/H, CA $.78 tax. 
Worfdradig, FOB 139490S, Sacramento CA 
958ia BNB963 

KENWOOD SF-120 (For TS 120/1 30) or 
SP-430 {For TS-430/440) ExtemaJ Speakers 
Wanted. Must Be Good Condition. Call TA. 
Murray, KC4YDJ, at (603) 399-0292. 

BNB965 

PRINTED CURCUIT BOARDS for projects 
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73 Amateur Radio Today * August, 1 992 BS 



UDdi)© 



REFERENCE 




20NIOI Everyday Electronics Data Book by Mike Ttf&ley BA. Mo- 

fnatiijn is pr^.^enEed in the form of a bmk eJeclfonic recipe book with nuirKT- 
Oils e?uuTipEe!^ shuwing hov>' [hei:)!^ L^Bn be pu[ inlu prairLici^ iiaiug a ininge of 
comnonly uvaibble 'industry standard' coniponenia and devires. 256 pp. ( 34 
line: drawing j<. $1^.1)0 

2ONI0Z Pii9(;tical Digital Electronics Handbook h i^^f Tootey cun- 
tains (line digital lest gear projcijis., CMOS, aniJ TTL pinoiitfe; and iaWes or 
reference dsita. Introduces digital circuits,, logic gates, bistabies and timers, 
niicriuprix'essor^, memory and input/cHjrpul devices^ before looking!, at the 
RS'232C interface land the lEF.E4^Se and TEEE- t<K)0 tnicroprace^jsorii btisW. 
20Spp., [OOlim: drawings. II4.S0 

20M Wl Eloctronic Power Supply Handbook fry fan R. Sinclair roarers 
TTian^ lypcsuft-Lipplicsi— baltcri'^Si :iimpli: AC supplier, liwilch mudc supplies 
and inverters. All types of supplies used for eiecironics purposes are covered 
in detalE, starting with cells arid batteries artd extending by way of rectified 
si^pliesnnd linear sfahi I izjer*i to modem switch- mode systems, IC nwitch - 
mode rcgiilatEFii, DC DC converters aiwi invetters. 144 pp., 90 line draw- 
ings. $lti'.2S 

20Ni(K Eloctronic Test Equfpmetit Handbook by Steve Money is a 

guidi; to tlcctronJt lest cLjuipmcnt for the cnginjccr, tecJintcian, ssudent and 
honic entliLi:ji£i^t. Provjdch. a praciical guide to widely used e^Ktrcstics irsim- 
nteiiis and the iDchniqutg of measuring a wide range of parattisters in electron- 
ics systems. 21 6 pp., 123 line drawing;;. $LS.IN) 

2QM03 Digital Logic Gates and Flip-flops hy fan R. Sinctair,wh2i they 
do and how (o u^e them. Seck:^ lu eiiiabiisb a firm foundation in digital 
ekx;trofiii;s by treating itic topacs of gates and Hip-flops tboronghly and from 
ibe began n big. For the user who waniii to design and EruubleiihoDt digital 
circuitry with con«ii(terphiy riM^re understanding of prcncifiles than the con- 
structorn and who ws^nts to know more:: than a few rules pf thumb abciui digiEal 
circuits. 304 pp. , 168 line drawings. ItS.W 

02C30The Commodore Ham's Companion fty Jim Gmbh K9Ef H50 

pagcfi of useful information on selecting a Commodore computer im (he ham 
itiack, where to find specialized program&H the Commodore-packci connec- 
tion, and more! $9.50 

09D22 The World Ham Net Dire<;tory by Mike Witknwski New-Second 
edition now oirt:r 600 net li^jiings. Thi« book introduce.s thg ^pctiiil intcrt:;st 
ham radio networks and show^s you when and where you can tunc them in. 
$9.50 

SHORTWA VE 




{^ 



IOFQ9t 1992 International Callbook The new 1^92 Internatnnai Call- 
boofc Ilsls 5iX],LK30 licensed rAdio amateurs in the countries our^irie North 
Ainerica, It coven; South America, Europe, Africa, As-ia, and ihc Pj^ific area 
(exclusiveof Hawaiii andlheU.S. ptJssC!».sions). $2*.^S 

iOnm] 1992 North Amedcan CallbookThe 1992 North American Call- 
book lists the calls ^ names, and address infonri3tio<n for over 500,000 licensed 
radio aniateurs in aJl countries of Ntirih America, fnim Panama to Canada 
incl|]dingGreenlRuid, Bcmiada, gnddicCaril)>bean islands pLu^ Hawaii and U.Si 
pos^ESiaions. $29.95 

Q5H24 Radio Handbook, 23rd Ed. by WUliam i. On- M£4/840pag<.^ of 
everything you waistC'd tu know abuut radio communication. Indepth study of 
AC/DC fundamentals., SSB, antenna.s, amplifiers, power «iupplies, and more. 
S29,Stt liard cover oniy 

I2E76 Basic Electrt:}nics Prepared by !he Bureau &f Naval Persamei 

Thoroughly revised in 1972. Covers the important aspects of applied elec- 
tronics and cfccironics communications. 567 pp. $il>.!^S 

i2E41 Second Level Basic Electronics Prepared hy the Bureau of 
Nami i^rsannei Sci^uel Lo Utijisc Elccirmics , iliorougli ireiitmeni of the tnore 
advanced levels of applied etectronics. Includes microwave receiving and 
transmitting. Huiidrcdsuf e\i;ellenE diagrams. 325 pp. $7.50 

01 D4^ The lllo^lrated Dktionary of Electri^nlcs, &th Ed. by Rufuv P. 
TumtrandStmi GihiliacQ Featuring more than 27, 000 entries, aneihaustivc 
list of abbrcviiatiuni^. and appcndiceij packed with schematic symbols and 



conversion tables, this is b)' far the most comprehensive dictionary of practi- 
cal electronics and computer terms avaibble. 720 pages %Zii35 
t)4M54 GCTE Wor&e Tutor From beginner to Eitra das? in easy self-paced 
lessons. Code speedsi from I m over 100 words per mEiiuie. Standard (yt 
Famsworth mode. Adjustable tone frequency. Create yovrown drills, prac- 
tice or actual e^anis.. Exams conform to FCC nequiremenis. 5"i fldppy for 
IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2 or compatibles 119.51) 

CMM.s.'^ Advanced Edition $2P.^S 

2UN09I Most-Often-Need^d Radio Piagram^ and Servicing 
nformatton, 1926-1936, Volume Of^ampUedbyM^N, Bfitman 

An invaluable reference for anyone involved in Vintage Radio rc^ioration, 
Hundreds of schematics, writing diagrams and pans lists, all fronuhe original 
sources, $11.95 

20N096 How To Head Scftematlcs (4th edition) by Donaid E. 
Herringten Written for the beginner in electronics ^ but it also contaijis infor 
mation valuabte to the hobbyist and engineering technician. This boc* \% your 
key to unlocking the mysteries of schcmaiic*, beginning with a gicncrdi 
dificug);ion of electronic dia^ram^. $14.95 

20f^097 Radio Operator's World AMas by WtiU Stimon, HfCP 

This is a compact (S!(7), detailed, and comprehensive world atlas designed as 
a con!itan4 desk top companion for radio operators, and ^r a replacenvenl for 
the traditional bulky and outdated atlases. Also included arc 42 pages nf vital 
statistics about each otiuniry. Popular with DXcris worldwide. $17.9S 

20N02O Secrets of RF Ctrcuft Design by Joseph J. Cajt Wrjitten In cleai 

nOn^technieal language^ covers everything from antenna to Uan^istorit. You 
will leani the basics of receiver operation, the prcfier Lii$e mid repair ol 
components in RF circuits, the principles of radio signal propagation fro™ 
low frotiuencies to microwave, and miKh moreE $19.50 

20NI0973 Magazine rndex 1960-1990 

A complete indcA to every artick-: published in 73 Magazine through I9W. 
Eleven major categories, further subdivided into 25 individual subject areas, 
prKividei^ ea.sy aeeesii to thousands of articles, and a wealth of technical 
information. Buuk$l5.'0ft 
IBM ,software (specify type) $2(1^00 

20N 1 1 Product Reviews si nat 1 94S containi; an ii^de^ to 2 ,400 pruduei 
reviews that have appeared in QST, CQ, HR, 73, and Rtidcom. AJphabelicaJly 
listed by manufaclure r , Book $12.95 



06S57 19S2 Pa&sport to World Band Radio by inter- 
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world at vour fingertips. You'll get the latest station and 
time grid-!], the \W2 Buyer's Guide and more. 3M pagei. 
$16.50 

03kS 1 1 Shortwave Receivers Past and Present edit- 
ed hy Fred J. Oslerman Concisje guide to 20O+ shortwave 
receivers majitifactured in the last 20 years. Gives Icey 
information on each mcHJel including coverage ^ display, 
circuit type, performance, new value, used valuer etc 
Phutos on most models. ITit; Blue Book of shortwave radio 
value. 19S7. 104 pages, m x M, $«.95 ^ 

07R25 The RTTY LIstenef by Fred Osttrmaa New and 
expanded version. This specialized book compiles i&suCs I 
through 25 of the RTTY Li.%{etter New.ftefier It contains 
up-EQ-date^ hard-Eo-fmd informaii;on on advanced RTTV 
und FAX monitoring techniques and frequencies, 224 
pages. $I9h9S 

03C 09 Shortwave Clandestine Confidential by G^r- 

ryL Z)fjrlfr Covers all clandestine broadcasting, country 
by country: tclf? frequencies, Other unpublished Informa- 
tion: spy^ insLtrgents, freedom fighters, rebel, anarchi.si 
radio, i^cret ntdio. Current pulilication. 84 pagcb. S8.SU 

03M22 1 US MHltary Communications (Part 1) Deah 
with L'S Military communication channels on shortwave. 
Covers fretjuencieSi background on point to point fre- 
quencies for the Philippines, Japan and Korea, Indian and 
Pacific Oceans, and more. 102 pages. 112,95 

03M222 US Military Communications (Part 2] Cov 

ers US Coastguard. N A.SA. CAP, FAA , Dept. of Energy, 
Federal Emergency Managemcni Agency, Disaster Com- 
n^unicatiuns, FCC, Dcp4. of JuiUce. From 14 KC to 9073 
KC- 79 pages. S12.9.S 

03^22:^ US Mllltiirv Communications {Part 3) This 
pan ccmipletes the vast overall frecjucFkcy List of US Mili- 
tary services, from ^993 KC to 27,944 KC, 7S pages, 
$12.M 

09S42 The Scaitner Listener's Handbook fry £a- 
ward Soomrc jViflFfGet the most otit of your scanner 
radio. Covers getting stancd, scanners and receivers, an- 
tennas, coaxial cable, aeccssoritiit^ ci^mpuier controlled 
rminittiring, more. $14,95 

03S2Q8 RadiOteletype Press Broadcasts by Michael 
Schaay Covers schedt]les of Prc&s Services by time, fre- 
quency, and country broadcasting m English, French. 
German. Spanish, and! Portuguese, beta iled Press Agency 
Portraits. l20pp,$l2.yS 

ANTENNAS = 

05A95 * Easy-up Antennas for Radio Listeners and 

Hains by Edw^ard M. l^'oii Lite iu learn how to consinjci 
low-coit, easy-to-ercd iiJUcitnaS? iLaSy-up AfilefmaS wjH htlp 
you. f (6.50 

01A7(] • Practical Antenna Handbook hy Joseph J r Carr 

Design, builtl. njudify, i^nil install your uwn aniennts- Carr, a. 
2D-year veteran of technical writing, liasi a unique ability to 
pre?ien( complex technical concepts \n an easy-lo-undeisiand 
way. 41-fi pp. $2J,Sy i 



1 ITSS Tune In on Telep^Ofte CaHs by Tom KneheJ 
KMES Formatted as a frequency list with detailed de- 
ACfiption of each service arid tia location in RF Hpectrum. 
E^rnvidflsbiLsic information for casual I istener^ getting starr- 
ed and details for ardent enthusiasts. $12.^ 

O3K205 Guide to Radioteletype {iRTTf) Stations by 

J. KHngenfuss Updated b(Hjk covers all RTTY citations 
from 3MH?.-30MHz. Press, Military, Commercial, 
Meteo. P^fTs.ettvbassies, and more. 1 05 pp. £12,95 

1 1 AS F Air Scan Gu ide to Aef onautit^ I Cofnm uni- 
cattons (Sth Edition) by Tom KneUel KUES Most 

comprehensive guide to nwnitoring aeronautical commu- 
nication in the US. R)ipai*ded to cover all Canadian land 
airport!^ and seaplane basics, plus listings for Central 
America, the Caribbean, IMorth Atlantic, and the Paciftc 
Territorici. $U.^^ 

07A66 Aeronautical Communications hiandboolf by 
Robert E. Emn& Lxhauiitivc, scholarly treat ntent of slwrt- 
wave aeronautical listening. Well organised, up-to-date. 
266 pp. $I9.*S 

07R2Q A Radio Journal 1912-1940 by Russ Rett- 
naicer y\^%!RC A fascinatiing trip through time. Easy to 

read and informative, educational and cnlcriaining. A trip 
down memory lajie to the ear^y days of radio, $7 .95 

I IRFH The ' Top Secret" Begistry of US Govern- 
ment Radio Frequencies (7th Ed.) by Tom Kneifef 
K2AES This ^.-anncr directory has become ihq standard 
reference source for frequency and other important infor- 
mation relating to the communication^ of federal agen- 
cies . 25 to 470 MHz . S l9.!*5 

I IF.S2 Ferrell's Confidential Frequency List, New 
Revised Edition cftmpUed by AAi. HalUgey All fre* 
querucies from 4MH7.-2S'MHz covcrin;£ ship, embassy, 
areo, Volirvet, Interpol, numbers. Air Force OrK/Two. 
more 376 pp. Si**50 

1 ISR^? National Direclory of Survival Radio Fre- 
quencies by Tom Kaeitei K2AES Handy and concise 
reference guide to high inteicsicommuniiiaiions frequen- 
cies icquijT^d by survivahsts. Includes chapter on building 
enuergency Communications antenna sysicms. $S.95 

USM 1 1 Scanner Modification Handbook, Vol. 1 hy 

Bill Creek Provides straightforward step-by -step instruc- 
ttonfi for expanding the operating capabilities of VitF 
scanner^. Filled with interesting text, helpful photos, ta- 
bles, and figures. SIT. 95 



1 1 EE06 Guide to Embassy Espionage Communl- 
Calions by Tfim Kmitei K2AE^ Caruiid and pmbing 
examination of worldwide emba:S3y and (alleged) espi- 
onage communication systems and networks. Extensive 
nation-bv-nation directory of embassy stations is includ- 
ed. S(fl,95 

ISW\ 1392 Shortwave Directory {7th ed,} by Bob 
(rrofe Esicnsivcty revised, the new ]992 ShtJriwave f^i' 
reoiofv i^ the consummate DXer's bible for the Elr^t 30 
MHz of ra^io spectrum. Including up-to-date and accurate 
VLF information as well, 270 itiformatton-packed and 
illujitratcd pages, u] convenient S^^z x 1 I format proftasion- 
altybound.*2l,95 

20N093 Vintage Radio iaft7-1929 by Morgan E. 
McMahon Recaptures the excitement of the early days. 
The authoritative refereaice book for historian.? and collec- 
tors. $*.9S 

2QNG94 A Flkk Of the Switch, 1930-f 95D by Morgan 
E. McMahon Herc-'i yourchanti" to recapture the thrill iti 
old-time radio and television. Browse through a thousand 
photos and fascinating old ads. Discover the fasi-powin^ 
hobby of radio collecting, and perhaps find a treasure in 
your own attic or ceUar. $S,95 

20Nn9^ World Broadcast Station Address Hook j^y 
(Jerry L. Zkjrffr A mu.st fur the serious shortwave listener. 
Hundreds of addresses for stwrtwave broadcast stations. 
Special sections with helpful Information to iitcreaiie your 
QSLp?n?en|agc.$S.95 

t]7R26 World Wide Aeronautical Communications 
by Koberi E. Emm This 42 page book was designed to 
update and augment the frequency lists published in (lie 
Aeronautical Communications HandtKiok^HF Edition. 
Contents include Aircraft/ Air TratTie Control, Aircraft / 
Company Operations, Aviation Weather Broadcasts, 
Aeronautical Flight Tests, Worldwide Military Air 
Forces, Aero Search & Rescue. Aero Law Enforcement, 
NASA Flight Support, Aen> Terms & Abbreviations and 
Acru Tactical rdenttHersi. S6.9S 

1 vm Scanner Modification Har>dbook Vol. 2 by 
Biil Creek Here t( is^-a companion to Vol. 1 . In fact. Vol, 

2 has g section that provides improved approaches and 
updated techniques for the mod^ in Vol. I. There's IS 
new, encittng nwxiillcations for poptjlar scanners and is 
fully illustrated with photog aiul schemsttc^, highly de- 



tailed step-by-step instructions so that the average hoi> 
byist can do these performance enhancing modifica- 
tions. This is an all new booJt that has all new mtjds. 
S17.!»S 

03R01 World Press Services Frequencies 

(RTTY) New 5th edition. A aimprehensiive manua 
covering radiolclcCypc new* moiiiluring^onlains al 
information— antenna, receiving, terminal units, pEui 
three extensive frequency lists. Cover? 65 World Presi 
.Services brc,adeas,ting in English. 'The Original Presi 
Bouk.^'a4pp.,$fi.9S 



VIS Study Cards Advance the ca^y way with 
VIS Study Cards. CompacL^ Up-to-date Flash 
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Formulas worked out. Schematics at your finger- 
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NOVICE ViSOl $11.95 

TECH \mri I0.§S 

GENERAL V1S03 9.95 

ADVANCED VIS04 1S.9S 

EXTEiA VrS05 14.9S 

Lanze Code Programs — (Available on 5Vi" 
disk.) Inexpensive complete study guiile code pro- 
grams for both the C64/]2S Commodorts and the 
IBM compatibies. Prograins include updated FCC 
questions, multiple choice answers, fortitulas, 
schematic symbols, diagram^s. and j^imulaled (VEJ 
sample test. 

IBM PUTtl ComtncKfcire Parti* Price 
Novice [BMOl C.Om] 114.95 

Tech 1BMD2 C0Ma2 $I4,?5 

General IBM03 CQMD3 tl4.95 

Advance IBMM COMU* WM 

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IBM06. COMftfi IBM/Commodofe Tech Ho 
Code— Lanze Code Program contains all the 
autliorkced FilC question!); and ^riswers ttseti in 
testing formulas, schematic KymlHih^ diugramSt 
and sample test for passing the new Technkian 
^'oCodelk^nfK. S24,9S 

rBM97 Amateur Radio Patt 97 RuTes (in- 
cludes updated, revised Commission's Rules ^ Sep- 
tember 30, 19S9) 5 W " disk IBM compatible only. 
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UHF/VHF/PACKET 



20N1U^ The Easy Wire Antenna Handbook by Dave 

Ingram K4TWJ Get out your mU of wire and your wire cutters , 
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Otte flflswer m the nO'a^f bnm'ha-ita ts lo wwA^ the code m atnplt m iearn shut is 's a ttim-problefn. Herewith the vmrM^'i 
EiixiEsi citde fnurse—teiif ofshfiu^nds {tfhami- have goum timr fkftties fhis amit^n^ ttei^- aficfriJCuf ivmy. k's faHatt-proi^- 
Mifst pe4?pltr an? abie in a-frip shmu^h ihe Nnvicf left, afier .'^pf^nding ^jf-U than Jhr^f ir^urj ^fk on Oef^^sis (md Thf Sfi^kifr. 
Pntpie t^o fiitve given up off ojhff cade eoatstsjirtd jftis ane does ihtjob in aji^^. Gotn^ afier youf Gtaemi? It 's ohoai time. 
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73T05 "Genesis" $5.95 

5 wpm— Tiiis is the beginning tape, taking yOii through 
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73T1J "Bach Breaker" $S.9S 

13-1- wpm— Code g roups again . at a brisk 1 '^ ■*■ wpn so 

youll be really at e^ise when you git dtjwn in fnjnt of a 
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code shy now! 



73T06 "The Stickler*' $S,9S 

6+ tt'prti— This is the practice tape for those whg sur- 
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UWO092 



Number 23 on your Feedback cafd 



■^k Number 23 on your 

Random output 

David Cassidy N1GPH 



Contests 

For almost a year now. I've been re- 
ceiving a lot of letters anij phcne calls 
concerning contesiing. Every hamfest I've 
been to this year has inctucled al least 
one heated debale over the pros and 
cons of contesting. The general feeling Is 
thai contesiing has gotten out of control. 

Nol being an avid contesler. it would 
be easy for me to sil cJown at the word 
processor and wfite a fiery condemnation 
of coniesis and fKiw they can l>e lilajined 
for everyHmg from QRM to the S&L cri- 
sis, lit exchange !or not doing Utwl, ! ex- 
pecf any avKf eoniesters reading this lo 
try to keep an open mi>nd and toolc at 
things from another's viewpoint before 
ta^ng crayon in hand and wnlmg me fiate 
mail Let's see If we can have a reasoned 
and thoughtful examinatioo of what s real- 
ly happening. 

Lei's examine a few facts. It is a fact 
that there are a lot more contests these 
days than there used lo be. The feeling of 
non-con testers is thai there is a major, 
band -filling contest almost every week- 
end. While this is certaaniy an exaggefa- 
tion. it does go lo show the level of frus^ 
Iratlon felt by the non -contesting hanrv 
population. 

II IS a fact that a major contest makes 
any other type of communication on a 
certain band impossible. It seems that 
contesters feel thiat the rules abom inten- 
tional interference and askmg if a (re~ 
querw^ is in use (whjct> implies that you 
Men for a response aiKJ ad accordngly) 
are oot in effect dunng contests. Just lis- 
ten to any frequency wti«re a QSO is in 
progress al the starting time of any majof 
contest. It doesn't lake but a few minutes 
for a contest to take over a band, forcibly 
evicting any other an^leurs. 

It is a fact that contesting has become 
more and more automated as logging 
software, memory keyers, digital vopce 
recorders and computer- con trolled rigs 
have become more comfnon, iVe heard 
co^testeis who ddn't key their mikes and 
actually speak a Icve word for over Ihfee 
ninules at a stretch. 

There are two ways we can approach 
this issue. We can ignore il (which is whal 
eveff avid cqntesier I've talked to has ad- 
vocated] or we can realise that we tiave a 
bil of a problem heie. aci like malure 
aiMs and come up with a compromise to 
benefit amateur radio. Other ways to ap- 
proach the Issue of contesting have been 
suggested, mainty petilioning the FCC to 
limit contest time and trequenctes. Any- 
one who thinks the FCC wants lo be both- 
ered with this js woelufly misguided and 
should sit in a cool, dark room until the 
feeling passes. (When are bams going to 
finally realize that the FCC doesn I like 
amateur radio; they hale Oeaiing with am- 
ateur rado: and every time we iorce them 
to spend time ofi our petty problems and 
infighting we get one slep closer lo the 
end of the Amateur Radk) Service?) 

tgnonng this issue is oenaiitly unfair to 
the maprity of hams who are not con- 
test e is. After all, they're no! asking for 
anything extraordtnary. They pifil want to 
be able to pfad^ce iheir holiby, the same 
way contestefs want to practice theirs. 
Ttiat ieaves us with only one way to deaf 
with this growing problem: compromise. 

In the spirit of beginning a dialogue, I 



submit— in no particular order— Ihe fol- 
lowing ideas as a starting poinl. 

1. Regulation of coniesis is the re- 
sponsibility of the contest sponsor, not the 
FCC II you have concerns about how 
contesis are run, you should be writing to 
the sponsoring organization, not the FCC. 
If you are a sponsoring organization, you 
should be monitoring your conlests for 
adherence to the rules and good amateur 
pradjce. 

2. I don't think It Is too much to ask 
Ihat contest operating be confined to a 
porlicxi of each barxj. leaving a portion for 
othef amateur activities. We have band 
plans and 'gentterBen's agreements' for 
all other types of special interest acfjvi- 
lies, so why not contesting? If contest 
sponsors will do this \/oluntafity. those 
who aie shoutmg for FCC action no 
longer have an afgume^il. 

3. ff special "contest zones* are sel up, 
non participating slalions Should have the 
courtesy to take their operations to non- 
contest frequencies for the duration . 

4. Contesting was conceived as a way 
to sharpen operating ski I is while having a 
little fun (and maybe having a chance to 
work a rare stale, zone, prefix, county, 
couiTtryp elc). Automatic contacts do 
nothing to improve operating skills. I pro- 
pose Ihal any automation alfecting the 
transmitted signal (i.e. memory keyers, 
digital voice recorders, com put er< con- 
trolled rigs) should be banned. Contests 
should be a test ol skill, not a measure of 
hour much mor>ey you have, 

5. A reasor^able powe< limit should be 
placed on all contest stations (I would 
propose 100 watts). Remember, this is 
supposed lo be a test of your operating 
skills, not a test of your MasterCard linnit. 

6. As hinted at in #1, it is the contest 
sponsor's responsibility to make sure their 
contest is not causing problems, To that 
end, I would suggest that each contest 
have a group of Official Contesi Ob- 
servers. These stations, whose callsigns 
could be advertised in advance, would be 
resfjonsibie for obsen/ing operations dur- 
ing the contest. They could advise sta- 
tions when they were overdriving their 
processors, operating out of the contest 
band or interfering with another stailoo. 
Any serious violations of FCC or contest 
rules could be reported to the contest 
spoRSOfs, disqualifying the offending par- 
ly. If cont esters knew there was a good 
chance Ihe^r scores would be disqualified, 
maybe you'd hear a lot less Inierference 
and 10-kHz-wide splatter. 

7. Contesi sponsors should take a 
hard look at their contest schedule to de- 
termine if any of their contesis are dupli- 
cating the efforts of another sponsor If 
they do. why not get together and elimi- 
nate some of the duplicalion, There is a 
fine line between often ng a way lor harits 
lo have some fun and using a osniest as 
a fom^ of advertising. 

I hope these ideas help to gerverale a 
dialogue between contesters and non- 
contesters. Write down your IfvoughlB and 
seod them in. Wei publish a repres^Ua- 
tive sample of any leflefs we ge*. 

It is in our own best interest to deal 
with this before Ihe FCC does it for us. 
There is room on the amateur bands for 
everybody. All we have to do is cut each 
other a little slack and work out our differ- 
ences constructively. 



88 73 Amateur Hadio Today • August. 1992 



■m Humbert 

Propagation 



number 29 on your Feedback card 



Jim Gray W1XU 



Jim Gray WfXU 

210 East ChafBau Cifots 

Payson AZ &5S41 

As this is written, the solar flux has 
just declined (for a day or two) lo Its low- 
est value in several years: 99. This 
means that the sun has indeed departed 
an extraordinary "plateau" of medium-to- 
high tluK values that lasted for almost a 
year. As I mentioned tiefore, it now ap- 
pears that Cycle 22 did have a double 
peak, which extended the very 
good conditions on the MF 
bands longer than usual. How- 
ever, untess this cycle will be 
boger, overall, than usual (and I 
donn think it will be) Uien wm can 
eicpect a more rapid decline in 
solar I1u3i values between now 
arMl the minimum in a few years. 
The ^saddle' between the two 
peaks (1989-1992) provided 
some exception at extended DX 
opportunities which we'll now 
have to forego and learn to live 
with diminished propagation 
conditions for the next several 
years. That is NOT to say there 
will be NO DX . . . just that il will 
be increasingly rare and wiil 
come and go more quickly. 

August will fsJOT be a spec- 
tacular month for HF-band prop- 
agation. Conditions will range 
from Poor (centered around lf)€ 
eih) to Good (centered around 
the t2th and 27th)- to Fair for the 
remainder of the month. As al- 
ways, you may expect these pe- 
riods to vary one way or the oth- 
er (later or eariier) by a day or 
hivo. 

August is a transitional mor^th 
between summer doldrums and 
fall brilliance. The ^conditions" 
outlined above are trending to- 
ward seasonal improvement 
(September and October) and 
there wilt be some excellenL but 
rare, DX opportunities Ihis 
month. Check the Good days 
and keep alert for sudden 
changes in WWV*s eighteen- 
minutes- after -any 4ioui updates. 
The Boulder "A* index shows 
how ionospheric absorption vah 



ues vary with daily averages (the higfief 
the numtef, the higher flie absorption) 
and the Boukjer 'K' index is a six-fiourly 
average of magnetic field flux values. 
Both, of course, are related to magnetic 
field activity which can range from quiet 
to unsettled to active to minor storm and 
major storm levels. In general, the high- 
er the solar liux and the lower the A and 
K indices are, the better conditions will 
be. The reverse is also time. 



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k=T-990 

HF Transceiver 



> Ffiquencv Coverage: 
lOOkHz-SOMH^RX 
{t6(M0TnTX) 

• BuiNr> Dual Digitaf Switcfied 
Capacitance Fitters 

» Buil^i^ Nigh Speed Antenna Tuner 
w^9 Memones 

• RFFSP[RF Frequency ^Snmed 
Speech Processor) 

- Dual VFOs with Direct Digital 

Svnihesis (ODS) 
^ 90 Memories which si ore 

Freauency Mode arhd &andwid!1i 

• Full and Semi 8raaktn CW 
Operation 

' Band Slacking VfO System 
■ Mutli-mode Sel*ctiorf on Pachel/ 
RTTY; Easy interface to TNCs 

Adjustable RF Power 

Varlabie Threshold fJoise Blanker 

Oplionel Digital Voice Recorder 

(DVS-2) 

front Panel RX Antenna SeiectiOTi 

Accessaries: 

FT'990DC AvailatJle withoyt power 

supply 
XF'IO JM 2nd IF SSB furrow 
' - ' 2.0 kHz Filter 
Xf'445K 2nd IF CW Narrow 

I 250 Hz Filter 
TaO-2 High stability TCXO 
SP-5 External Desk-ti^p 

II ^leaker 
M0-1C8 De^k Mrcrophone 
OVS-Z Digital Voce Recorder 

Ufirt 
YH'TTST Lightweight 

Headplion&s 
LL-S Phone Patch Lfnit for 
, SP-6 Speaker 





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|Yaesu did it againr 



: ...is IS the only 
F rig with a dual digital SCAR 
:'§ fhcredible on a crowded band. Look inside, 
motherboard and plug-in board design, 
I* Un-be-liev-abie!" 



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lie mnovative technolog>^ of the FT-990 is inside, nut 
outside. Like the exclusive dual digital SCAF (Switched 
Capacitance Audio Filter). And for long lemi reliability; the 
motherboard plug- in module const ruction eliminates inler- 
board wiring. The FT-990 also has the same undisputed receiv- 
er pcrlbrmance of the FTNlflO as well as other features such as 
a higli-speed, built-in antenna tuner with autonialii: storage, 
And multiple DDS (Direct Digital Synthesis) for quick Icick- 
up time and low level noise, \\"hai s more, for maximum effi- 
ciency, the FT-990 is a setf-contajned base station with its 
space-sa\'i ng, bu i 1 t-in AC power ^u ppl y. 

Outside, the ver>' functional HF front panel us simple and 
uncluttered with a large amber display. Easy to use, easy to 
see. Pure and simple QSO enjoymeiU - with niustlu when you 
need il! Yaesu makes '1iigh-tech" efibniess. Now it works for 
you, not against you. Ha\ e your dealer show^ you the FT*990 
today and see what we mean. 




FT-9900C now available. 






Peffonnance without contpmmise. 



Si4 




nnovation isn't minlatuie 
knobs, switches, and 




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t, 17210 Edwards Road. C&rritos, CA 90701 (310) 404-2700 
SpecJficalJoris sy^iecl (fl change ^ittioul notce, SoecHiCd^ne ouafanlfisd only v^ilt^in amaJeur tignfls Same aecessofies and/or apt'Ofra are stand^it ifi mtm^ areas Cfiffik 






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Like a cK^||||||f||if§Bit of game. Kenwood's newest HF transceiver blends intense 
efficiency with swifi, surgical precision. State of the art, pure and simple. Oflering superb 
MTX/RX perfo nnanc e plus exceptional signal purity, the TS-950SDX establishes a new 

]f benchniiirk lor HF communications. 

• Built-in DSP (digital signal processor) 

• Dedicated Power MOS FET final section 

• User-friendly dggjgn and menu system 




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Kenwood m^ets or exce&ds Ail specificalions. Contact yourdmhf lor a cofnplGfe hstir^ of specttfcations and atHxssori^s. Spscrtic^tions are subfBd to chartgB 
wttfiCut notice. Complete service mantMis are ava^UitfB (oialiKer wori^-i lrans:aiver$ and most acceSsartes One yea ' warranty in Ute U^SA. only. ^^H 



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